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Copy of The Effects of Positive Behavior Support in Alternative School Populations
Transcript of Copy of The Effects of Positive Behavior Support in Alternative School Populations
-Children experiencing emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) experience the most academic problems out of any disability group (Kern, Hilt-Panahon, & Sokol, 2009).
-Likewise, children with emotional and behavioral problems present the poorest social and behavioral outcomes of any disability group without any noticeable improvements across time (Kern, Hilt-Panahon, & Sokol). Poor outcomes for children with EBD are demonstrated by: lower grades, greater amount of class failures and depressed rates of passing the minimal proficiency tests in contrast with any other disability group (Frank, Sitlington, & Carson, 1995). Likewise, students with EBD have an extremely high drop out rate at 50% and have low after school social and economic outcomes.
Students with EBD have a greater chance of difficulty finding a job, high rates of drug and alcohol abuse and higher rates of criminal violations (Bullis & Cheney, 1999; Greenbaum et al., 1996; Quinn, 2004). To succeed in school it is crucial that students have not only behavioral skills but it is also important that they have academic skills.
There is an apparent relationship between academic and behavioral performance.
This is supported by research which shows a correlation with behavioral and academic problems.
Horner et al. (2009), explored student performance on statewide reading accountability tests when paired with school wide behavior supports. The research also shows that there is a decrease in problem behaviors in schools after SWPBS is in effect. School wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) concerns altering situations for people with problem behaviors to decrease the chance that the problem behaviors will take place and to also help with an increased social, personal, and professional quality of life.
SWPBS is a set of research supported strategies that are used to enhance the quality of life with rewarding and teaching new skills and appropriate behaviors by creating changes in the student’s environment. Positive behavior support uses validated procedures to increase quality of life and eliminate problem behaviors. Some of these problem behaviors are as follows: self-injury, aggression, property damage, defiance, and disruption (Fixen et al., 2005). Using SWPBS, an individual’s quality of life at home, school and community settings should all be benefited. As stated earlier, the purpose of the present study is to explore the impact of SWPBS on behavioral and academic results in students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an alternative school setting.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobiological condition involving severe and extensive symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity (APA, 1994). According to the DSM-IV, (APA, 1994) the child must exhibit many inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors to be classified at ADHD. Out of children with ADHD, 20-30% have learning disorders in reading, spelling, writing and arithmetic (Biederman et al. 1991; Pliszka 1998). Many studies have examined the effects of SWPBS and social support for students with ADHD In Terenzi, Ervin, & Hoff (2010), three sixth grade students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were used for a classwide self-management intervention to decrease problem behaviors and to improve on-task behaviors.
Two rules were taught to every student in the classroom to help manage their behaviors. The rules implemented were part of the school’s positive behavior support model and were to
“Be safe, and be respectful”. The results show that the self-management intervention related to a significant decrease in the student’s problem behaviors and an increase in behaviors that were on-task (Terenzi, Ervin, & Hoff, 2010). In Demaray & Elliott (2001), the researchers explored the perceptions of social support behaviors by adults and peers at school. The results indicated that the boys with ADHD characteristics were given less social support from significant adults. Yet, both the control group and the ADHD group similarly stressed the importance of social support. The results also indicated that social support was correlated significantly with self-concept and positive social skill behaviors. Positive behavior support has made great progress as an alternative to harsh disciplinary school-wide procedures. These effective strategies are evidence based programs that are extremely compelling when paired with compliance school wide. These strategies are used to identify and promote appropriate behaviors and expectations to all students. In schools implementing SWPBS, students with desirable behaviors are immediately recognized. Along with immediately recognizing desirable behaviors, unacceptable behaviors must also be immediately and consistently recognized. When compliance is school-wide, SWPBS is extremely effective. For the schools implementing SWPBS, fewer students are given office referrals (Bradshaw, Mitchell & Leaf, 2010;Bohanon et al., 2006; Horner et al., 2009; Luiselli, Putnam, Handler, & Feinberg, 2005; McCurdy, Manella, & Eldridge, 2003). Likewise, teachers are provided more time to teach because they are spending less time reacting to problem behaviors (Scott & Barrett, 2004).
There is minimal research on how students with ADHD and EBD are being served in alternative school settings and very little research exists on ways to improve the academic results of the students in these alternative schools (Lehr & Lange, 2003). To date there is little research on the effectiveness of SWPBS and other behavior supports in alternative schools. There is minimal research currently on the effects whole-school behavior supports have on behavior and academics as well. (Simonson, Britton, and Young, 2010). The purpose of this study is to explore the effects SWPBS has on academics and behavior issues for students with ADHD. Thus, it is hypothesized that students with ADHD attending an alternative school implementing SWPBS will experience an increase in academic and behavioral performance. So........... METHODS School Wide PBS! No SWPBS In Peinado and Alvardo, (2000) the researchers conducted a study using curriculum based measures to examine its impact on academic and behavioral issues for individuals with emotional and behavioral disorders. The results indicate that when faced with problems such as school failure; students with significant behavioral and emotional problems, CBM data can propose important issues of effective instructional practices. One alternative school will be trained in SWPBS using the Sugai, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, and Todd’s (2005) training model and SWPBS will be implemented for one year. A school psychologist will train all school staff to use effective SWPBS strategies and will watch for differences in student behavior. Differences in student behaviors will be measured by incident reports and office referrals. Differences in student academics will be measured using Curriculm Based Measures, (CBMs). In order to guarantee that SWPBS is being implemented correctly in the alternative school, the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (Horner et al., 2004) will be used. The CBMs will be administered at both schools once in the spring and once in the fall to all children with ADHD. The CBM scores between both groups will then be compared. Analytic Approach A paired samples t-test will be conducted to determine whether the control and experimental groups differed in behavior and academic performance over the course of one school year. This particular analytic technique is typically used to test difference between two variables or conditions; specifically, differences in terms of their means. Significant differences between each possible condition will be determined based on p values less than .05. It is expected that students with ADHD who are attending the alternative school with SWPBS will perform better academically (i.e., higher CBM scores when measured in the following spring) and behaviorally (i.e., fewer office referrals) than students with ADHD who are not attending the school with SWPBS. Two schools are being used The End :) References
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