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Forestry in Canada
Transcript of Forestry in Canada
Sustaining Forests for the Future
Forestry in Canada
Common Logging Methods Used in Canada
What Type of Resource are Forests?
Forests are considered a renewable natural resource. This is because the trees can be replanted. Also, natural regeneration of the seeds can happen. A forest can be labeled as non-renewable if used at a faster rate than the environment takes to replenish the resource.
Why do we need Forests?
We need forests for many reasons. Some are: the trees provide us with the oxygen that we breath, the wood is used to make many products, they provide habitats for countless species of plants and animals, the forest industry is a major employer all over Canada and finally, forest-related work is often the main source of income in rural and Aboriginal communities.Let's just say: without forests, the world wouldn't be the same!
The lead producer for lumber is British Columbia. This is because the trees are large enough. Also, the trees are easy to peel into layers to be glued into plywood.
By: Dania and Anfal
The logging industry is starting to think about all the wood that they're wasting. They have taken some steps to reduce the waste. For example, the edges and ends of logs that are usually thrown away are now being used to make new products, like chipboard and particleboard. Even the sawdust and bark that were once thought of as garbage are now burned to run the logging mills.
Selective harvesting is perhaps the most environmentally friendly method of logging. Trees that are old and don't provide shelter for animals are taken down. Younger trees are left uncut. With this method, only about 20 trees of the 400 in a hectare of forest would get cut down. However, the cutting and transportation of the logs can damage almost half the trees in a forest. Most companies don't use this method because they say it's too expensive. Also, it takes too much time to locate and get to the mature trees.
A single tree can absorb one ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime!
Clear-cut logging is considered the most environmentally harmful. This is because it means that you cut down most or all the trees in a huge rectangular area. Clear-cut logging completely destroys the ecosystems of the forest. The habitat of the plants and animals that lived there are gone.
Money, Money, Money!
What is forestry?
Forestry is creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and similar resources to meet desired goals and needs for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create systems that manage forests to provide environmental supplies and services to the world. The challenge of forestry is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource and any other resources that could be affected.
•foresters and forest technicians / technologists
•forest and land-use planners
•GIS and geomatics specialists
•academics and researchers
•forest health specialists and silviculture surveyors
•forest protection officers and forest firefighters
•urban foresters and arborists
•technical positions in the manufacture of forest products, i.e., millwrights, engineers
•biologists, ecologists, watershed managers
•timber cruisers and compassmen/women
•block layout and road surveyors
•tree planters and silviculture workers
•summer positions for forestry students
•other professionals who specialize in the forest and forest product sectors, i.e., economists, marketing specialists, business analysts, natural resource policy analysts, and more
Jobs associated with forestry
Strip logging involves the clear-cutting of a relatively thin strip of forest that usually parallels a river. This method allows the strip to regenerate while selecting another strip upslope. It also prevents erosion because the strip is buffered by a row of trees remaining and a supply of nutrients from the newly cut strip. Smaaaart!
There are many products that come from trees that may surprise you. Some are: paint, cleaning solvents, shoe polish, turpentine, tar, enamel, cellophane food wrap, imitation leather, photographic film, and artificial sponges. Surprising huh?!
Pulp and paper
Products that surprisingly come from trees
A very important resource that comes from trees is paper. Imagine your life without paper products. There would be no books, magazines or newspapers. No wrapping paper, greeting cards, writing paper, or even toilet paper! Paper has become a daily part of our lives!
There are about 150 pulp and paper mills in Canada. The first one was built in Quebec in 1864.
Lead Producers in Canada
Pulp and paper
The lead producers for pulp and paper are Ontario and Quebec. This is because most of the trees there aren't large enough for lumber. The trees are ideal for easy pulp and paper manufacturing.
Cut responsibly (selective logging)
Use all parts of a tree
Make laws against cutting down vulnerable trees
Have multiple days through out the year to replant trees
Use double sides when using paper
Saving resources by reducing wastes
Other ways we can sustain forests
New technology is already being used to change paper making to being more environmentally friendly.
Researchers discovered new ways to make paper that uses fewer chemicals and bleaches. This makes it so that fewer chemicals get releases into the environment.
The harmful substances that the industry does use are being treated more carefully. Much more care is taken to prevent these chemicals from getting into streams and soil.
The use of ester in making pulp has gone down over the past 20 years, by over 50%. This reduces the risk of contamination of our waterways.
Using recycled paper in the process is a great step in saving forests.
What is a foresters annual salary?
The median annual earnings of foresters in 2008 was $53,750. The middle 50% earned between $42,980 and $65,000. The lowest 10% earned less than $34,710 and the highest 10% earned more than $78,350
Products and Jobs!
Many logging companies have relied on natural regeneration to fill in cut forests. The seeds from nearby trees would blow into the area where the trees used to be. The problem with this is that it takes several years before new trees take hold. In that time, the soil gets washed away because the trees are not there to hold it in place. Replanting is a better method to fill in a cut forest. Seedlings are planted right after the forest has been cut. The seedlings have been raised in nurseries and are already quickly growing. Before long, their roots are deep into the soil, helping to prevent erosion.
In 2012, direct employment in the Canadian forest industry rose slightly (by 0.9%) from the 2011 levels, to 235,900 jobs.
Indirect and induced employment in the forest industry in 2012 was an estimated 363,700 jobs. These were spread across all regions of Canada.
80% of the paper produced in Canada is exported, mostly to the United States.
Over 65000 Canadians work in pulp and paper companies.
Canadian forest product exports, 1997-2012
Canada’s forest industry contributes significantly to the Canadian economy. By value, Canada is the world’s leading exporter of softwood lumber, newsprint and, wood pulp. Together, forest product exports significantly improve Canada’s balance of trade.
Canadian forest product export destinations, 1997-2012
Ontario has approximately 85 billion trees
Forests in Canada
Forestry Jobs in Canada, 2002-2012
Gage Physical Geography 7
Less than one-half of 1% of the forest in the boreal region is harvested annually
Ontario’s most common tree is the black spruce, followed by poplar, and jack pine
Canada contains more than 400 million hectares of forested land, which accounts for almost half of our total landmass and approximately one-tenth of the world's total forest cover. Although Boreal forests are the dominant forest type, 44.2% of the forest in it is unavailable for harvest
66% of Ontario is forest
In 2010, Canada was the world’s second-largest forest product exporter
Helping the environment by replanting
Using technological change
Approximately 8 percent of Canada’s forest area is protected by legislation. By law, all forests harvested on Canada’s public land must be successfully regenerated