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Lecture 7 - Globalization of the Creative Industries
Transcript of Lecture 7 - Globalization of the Creative Industries
What do media have to do with
When did media globalization start ?
The idea of media imperialism
Why is it especially for media companies
so attractive to operate internationally?
Successful media export
Barriers to successful media export
Commitment through investment and localization
Critical reflections on the idea of media imperialism
In the 1980s: Liberalization and privatization of media systems in many countries
Effect: cable networks, spread of Internet, mobile networks, global standardisation of all networks, etc.
Regional economic alliances (EU, NAFTA)
New regulatory frameworks: WIPO, WSIS, ACTA, Beijng Treaty
Tunstall, Jeremy (1978): The Media Are American
Varis (1974), Schiller (1976), Tunstall (1977), Boyd-Barret (1977) et al.
Matellart & Dorfman (1991): Studied the Donald Duck comics and found that Duckburgh was framed by ideological assumptions about individuality, freedom, money, sexuality, and the 'nature' of the family.
French Minister of Culture, Jack Lang (1982):
Dallas is a threat to the national culture of France. He called for a crusade "against financial and intellectual imperialism that no longer grabs territory, but grabs consciousness, ways of thinking, ways of living..."
Former Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew (1998):
He said that it was necessary to "limit the unrestricted flow of Western media within Asia, in order to preserve and retain the fundamental values of Asian society."
High Economies of Scale
Olson (1999): Narrative Transparency
Iwabuchi (2002): Culturally odorless
The Vertical Barrier Chain
Market Entry Modes
Export / Product Licensing
Source: Bartlett and Ghoshal (2000)
The world's largest media companies
General Electric (revenues 2009: $157 billion)
Walt Disney (revenues 2009: $36.1 billion)
News Corporation (revenues 2009: $30.4 billion)
Time Warner (revenues 2009: $25.8 billion)
Viacom (revenues 2009: $13.6 billion)
CBS (revenues 2009: $13 billion)
The active audience
The contra flow
Instead of homogenization: hybridization
"authentic, traditional and local culture in many parts of the world is being battered out of existence by the indiscriminate dumping of large quantities of... media products from the United States." (p.57)
Economies of Scope
p.6: "Some 42 percent of the world's population live in China and three Indian subcontinent countries (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh). In none of these countries do media imports from the United States or western Europe have a big market share. This is also true of six other countries - Indonesia, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia - each of which has a population of over 100 million people."
Telenovelas & Bollywood
twin process of hybridization and formation of multiple layers of identities among audiences.
We continue with urbanisation/localisation of production.
Dr. Indrek Ibrus
Exotic or own?
International film distribution
First communications satellite (Telstar) - 1962
Mattelart & Dorfman (1991)
...and Asian flows...
The Network Era?
The cultural globalisation in the context of network effects is being studied.
"Social Network Markets":
- Internet is global, but also increasingly local
- What's the relationship between "personal networks" and national media systems?
- International media export strategies and social media marketing?
- Effect of prosumerism on localisation? Or on globalisation?
How does media content travel across cultures?
...humankind will move from individualism and fragmentation to a collective identity, with a "tribal base"...
UNESCO analysed programming flow of the 1990: In all of the included European and Asian countries, the share in television programming import from the United States was greater than from any other country
In Europe, almost no programming came from countries outside the US and Europe.
A study in 1997 by Debens and Desmaele, showed that the asymmetric programming flow had not changed. It traced the origin of films and series on 36 public and commercial channels from six European countries and confirmed the persistent dominant position of American fiction for European markets.
All studies show that the United States is the number-one exporting nation, distributing far more programming than any other country.
Lacunae influencing international reception:
To overcome Lacunae and barriers:
...and other flows...
Content (consumption/distribution) and content production services (production).