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3. FOOD SHORTAGES - REASONS

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by

Ms Azlyna

on 26 April 2016

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Transcript of 3. FOOD SHORTAGES - REASONS

FOOD SHORTAGES
PHYSICAL
Extreme Weather
Causes crop damage 0r makes it difficult for crops to grow
Why do food shortages still occur?
Especially if countries are unable to recover from the loss of crops
CYCLONE YASI
Caused total crop losses in queensland, Australia, to $1.4billion
(Category 5 storm, 2011)
About 20% of the region's sugar crop had been destroyed - would take farmers years to recover
- Some farmers unsure if they would want to remain in cane farming
- Sugar prices spiked due to the shortage
Climate Change
May cause existing farmland to become unsuitable for farming
(-)ve
Some crops may no longer be able to grow in some areas
(t)ve
Lengthening of growing season
Crops may be farmed in areas that were not suitable for farming in the past
reduce crop yield
Melting of Glaciers
Disappearance of glaciers could cause water supply to river basins such as the ganges to be reduced in the future
Reduce farm productivity
Reduce irrigation
Future
Pests
Major contributor to food shortage
Damage food crops
Liberia
State of emergency was declared in 2009
invaded by a new species of caterpillar in tens of millions
46 villages were affected
Posed major threat to the already serious food security situation
http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/africa/01/28/liberia.caterpillars.emergency/index.html?iref=24hours
POLITICAL
Civil Strife
Can lead to disputes over the control of resources that affect food production (e.g. land and water)
These resources may even be destroyed - hinders food production
Lack of food supply can cause civil strife

vicious cycle of shortage of food and civil strife
OR
Poor Governance
Such as corruption, policy errors and the inability to implement policies
Food security can be threatened when gov. prioritises other developmental need of the country
Or when Gov. compete with local population for resources such as land to carry out activities with higher economic returns
Madhya Padesh, India (2010)
40,000 farmers were deprived of land for farming
due to development of a steel plant, mining and port
As a result of the gov. policy, these villagers lost the means to produce their own food and were left with extremely limited income to buy food
ECONOMIC
Demand from emerging economies
- Number of LDCs have developing economies
- demonstrated high increase in food demand
- believed to be depleting food resources, such as grain
increase in food production may not be able to cope with the rapid increase in demand
Demand from developing countries can redirect food from poorer countries
Poorer countries cannot afford to pay the same prices for food
Food Policy
As part of Gov. policy, it ensures food security
Gov. has to ensure that food is readily available to its population
Stockpiling
setting aside and storage of food to ensure food security during emergencies
Algeria, 2011
Bought 800,000 tonnes of wheat to add to its stockpile
Caused other countries to react and do the same
Saudi Arabia
Announced plans to double its stockpile
Indonesia
Agreed to purchase four times the usual amount
Reduced the supply of food staples and caused prices to rise
Worsened the problem of food shortage in some LDCs
Food Subsidies
To make food more affordable to consumers
USA, 2012
USD$74.6 billion worth of food subsidies were distributed by the US government to 47.7 million americans
However, countries that are too poor to afford such subsidies may continue to face the problem of food shortage.
The amount of food subsidies given should be according to how much people need them the most
SRI LANKA, 1979
Switched to a food subsidy scheme that distributed to individuals based on income
As a result of this policy, calorie consumption increased by 12% among the poorest 20% of the population
Cost of Fertilisers & Transport
Fuel costs can directly affect the cost of food
Increase in food prices may result in poor people being unable to afford enough food to meet their nutritional needs
Conversion of Farmland to Industrial Crop Production
More profitable than food crops
Biofuels
United States Department of Agriculture, 2009
25% of all food crops grown in USA became fuel for vehicles instead of food for people
- Amount was enough to feed 330 million people for one year
Farmland that could have been used to grow crops for human consumption may be used to grow biofuels instead.
SOCIAL
Lack of Accessibility
Lack transport facilities such as roads and rail links
- Food available in country, but far and inaccessible
- People may be unable to obtain fresh produce
- Thus, may face food shortage in that area
Especially prominent in LDCs
Inadequate
logistics of food distribution and storage
Depends on the presence of a good transport network
Timor-Leste
One third of population experiences food shortage in between harvests
- Lack of storage facilities to store harvests
- Difficulty of accessing the numerous remote communities
Rapid Population
Growth (FUTURE)
World population is expected to increase to
10 billion by 2050
Food production has to increase to meet the projected world's population growth
But increasing food production may have obstacles
Sub-Saharan Africa
Amount of land suitable for agiculture has been declining due to rising temperatures
- Poses a threat to food production and food security in the region
- Coupled with high population growth
Risk of food shortage is high
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