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Assessment for Reading Instruction

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Elizabeth Wissel

on 15 December 2015

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Transcript of Assessment for Reading Instruction

The cognitive model suggests "that reading is composed of three separate components. Reading comprehension, the purpose of reading depends on (1) automatic recognition of the words in a text, (2) comprehension of language in the text, and (3) the ability to use the strategies needed to achieve one's purpose in reading the text (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 8)
The Cognitive Model
Running Records
"Running records are coded notations of text reading, used as a vehicle for error analysis" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 56)

Running records are a way to measure the reading that a child is able to be successful at while reading independently. Having students do an oral retell as well as asking literal, inferential, and critical thinking at the end of a running record can provide a more in depth picture of a students reading level. By adding a comprehension component, you are minimizing the chances of mis-leveling a student who can read the text accurately, but cannot fully comprehend the text.
Running Record Example
Types of Assessments
Group versus Individual
Individual is used for oral responses and allows for adaptive testing, provide more dependable results
Formal versus Informal
Formal tests are more rigid with clear-cut directions for administration
Informal tests allow the teacher's discretion to have a role
Norm-Referenced versus Criterion Referenced
Norm-referenced tests compare one child's results with the results of other children, using percentile ranks, grade equivalents, etc.
Useful in determining the overall developmental level of a child compared to others
Criterion referenced tests compare a child's test score to a preestablished benchmark
Useful for competency-based assessments and determining mastery level
Screening versus Diagnostic
Screening tests provide and estimate of a student's achievement level in a particular area
Used to determine if students are not meeting grade level reading benchmarks
Diagnostic tests provide detailed information beneficial for planning instruction (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 23-24)
Elizabeth Wissel

Assessment for Reading Instruction
By using assessments that focus on the three pathways, (1) Automatic Word Recognition, (2) Oral Language Comprehension, and (3) Strategic Knowledge, an educator can gather data to design classroom and individual literacy plans.
How to Administer a Running Record

Word Recognition and Spelling
Phonics Assessments
"Phonics refers to the ability to use letter-sound correspondences to derive the pronunciation of words" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 111)
usually administered individually
demonstrate development of decoding skills
Word Recognition and Spelling Assessment:
Standardized Assessment of Phonological Awareness
Word Recognition and Spelling
High Frequency Words
"A sight word is any word that can be pronounced automaticvally, without conscious analysis" (Mckenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 113)
High frequency words are those that appear most often in written English.
Administering a Fry or Dolch Word test individually and with frequency for progress monitoring is an excellent way to provide and instructional target.
An assessment such as SAPA can be used to gain knowledge about phonological gaps.
Word Recognition and Spelling Strategies
McKenna and Stahl propose several ways to develop phonological awareness:
Nursery rhymes
Picture Sorting
Oddity Tasks
Stretch Sounding
Invented Spelling
Tongue Twisters
Adding Sounds
Deletion Tasks
"Picky Puppets"
(2005, p. 94)


Word Recognition and Spelling
Spelling Stages:
Emergent Spelling
Children spell learned words as a unit
Letter Name-Alphabetic Spelling
Consists of learning about vowels
around 1st grade
Within Word Pattern Spelling
involves learning patterns that occur
Syllable and Affixes Spelling
how syllable fit together
ex: consonant doubling rule
Derivational Relations Spelling
learn semantic relationships
ex: fantasy, fantastic

Word Recognition and Spelling Assessment: Elementary Spelling Inventory and Feature Guide
Word Recognition and Spelling Strategies
Word Banks
use high-frequency words that were missed to create individual word banks
Synthetic Phonics
"Synthetic phonics instruction starts with teaching letter sounds then supporting students as they blend these sounds to form words" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 123).
Compare-Contrast Approaches to Phonics
Making words
Word Sorts
closed (given category)
open (come up with own category
McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 123-126
Resource: http://fcrr.org/for-educators/sca.asp
"There are three well established components of fluency: Fluent reading should involve
word recognition, with appropriate
, or inflection" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 163).

Using a rubric like the one created by the NAEP can be applied to a student's oral reading sample from a running record for example.

Fluency Assessments
Curriculum Based Measures
Calculate the number of words correctly read per minute (WCPM)
Use the Oral Reading Fluency Data chart with own texts to norm data
Fluency Strategies
Echo Reading
Repeated Readings (especially of texts at student's level)
Recorded Reading
Partner Reading
Choral Reading
Reader's Theater
Oral Recitation
Buddy Reading
(McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 170-178)
"Vocabulary knowledge is consistently correlated with reading comprehension" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 180).

There are four sages of word knowledge as identified by Dale (1965).

Stage 1: has never seen the word before.
Stage 2: has heard (or seen) the word, but doesn't know the meaning of the word.
Stage 3: has a vague or general knowledge of the word or knowledge of the word's meaning in a single context.
Stage 4: knows the word in multiple contexts. (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 183)
Using this Know or No activity is a great way to evaluate a child's word knowledge stage.
Having students monitor their own "Word Wizard" chart is a way for them to take ownership of their vocabulary acquisition.
Vocabulary Assessments/Strategies
Academic Language
"Nagy and Townsend (2012, p.92) define
academic language
the 'specialized language, both oral and written, of academic settings that facilitates communication and thinking about disciplinary content'" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 189).
Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/resources/academicwordlist)

Academic Vocabulary Assessment
Breadth of Word Knowledge
Vocabulary Recognition Task (VRT)
Vocabulary Recognition Task
The Vocabulary Recognition Task (VRT) is a teacher-constructed yes-no task used to estimate vocabulary recognition in a content area (Stahl, 2008). Like the VKS, it combines self-report with demonstrated knowledge. Stahl applied the VRT with second graders reading at a mid-first-grade level. The purpose was to identify content-related words that the students could both read and associate with a unit of study.
In the study, each VRT consisted of a list of 25 words; 18 of the words were related to the content in each of four themed science units and 7 words were unrelated foils. See Figure 3 for a sample VRT comprised of vocabulary associated with the insect unit. Students circled the words that they were able to read and that were related to the topic. As a posttest, students completed the VRT and categorized the selected words under provided headings on a concept web (see Figure 4). (Stahl, Bravo, 2010).
Vocabulary Strategies

Think Like A...Word Chart
"Movable" Word Wall, words change depending on the unit of study. Use a tri-fold board with Velcro.
Vocabulary Four Squares


Word Recognition and Spelling Assessment: Fry Words
High Frequency Words
Comprehension Assessments
"The first principle reason for assessing reading comprehension is to gauge the degree to which a student has comprehended a particular selection...The second reason is to estimate general level of proficiency" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 198)

literal, inferential, critical
Cloze Assessments
usually not used in grades lower than 4th
a multiple choice variation of cloze
Oral Retellings
Cloze Example
Comprehension Strategies
Explicit Strategy Instruction
Student-Generated Questions
Question Cue Cards
Anticipation Guides
Summary Writing
Graphic Organizers
Reading Guides
Reciprocal Teaching
"Click or Clunk"

Comprehension Assessments
Giving interviews such as the following to students can help the teacher gain knowledge about what strategies students may have as well as the understanding students have about the purpose of reading.
Index of Reading Awareness

Textbook Interview (Form 9.3, Assessment for Reading Instruction)
Affective Factors
"If you hope to influence students' motivation to read in a truly substantial way, you must first know something about your children" (McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 239).

shaped by every reading experience
shaped by beliefs about what will happen when opening a books
shaped by how role models feel about reading
interests decline with age
gender influences increase with age
Reading Value
influences motivation
Reading Self-Concept
place reading holds in one's life
McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 240
Affective Factors Assessments
McKenna and Stahl provide the following wasy to gather information about students:
"Conducting focused classroom observations.
Tracking entries in student's reading journals.
Administering open-ended questionnaires.
Administering interest inventories.
Administering attitude surveys" (2015, p. 241-242)

Reading Attitude Survey:

Affective Factors Strategies
Poor Decoding
Read aloud
Make materials available at appropriate level of difficulty
Use electronic supports
Uninteresting Materials
Curate an extensive classroom library
Include nonfiction
Children's Choice Awards
Illustrated books
Digital Resources
Fostering Positive Attitudes
Use adult models
Be a role model
Provide recreational reading time (SSR, DEAR)
Cautious use of incentives
Cross-age tutoring
Literature Circles
Idea Circles
Status of the Class
(McKenna, Stahl, 2015, p. 244-248)

By approaching reading assessment from a cognitive model approach and working your way through the three main paths of Automatic Word Recognition, Oral Language Comprehension, and Strategic Knowledge, one can compose a complete literacy profile to inform instruction for an individual, small groups, or the whole class.

References and Resources
Works Cited
McKenna, M., & Stahl, K. (2015). Assessment for Reading Instruction (Third ed.). New York, New York: The Guilford Press.
Stahl, K, Bravo M. (2013). "Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas." Reading Rockets. Retrieved from: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/classroom-vocabulary-assessment-content-areas
Kendall, Brittany. (2014, April 6). Click or Clunk: A Student Comprehension Self-Check.
[mrcollinsmediateach]. (2014, January 16). Fountas & Pinnell Running Record.
[phonicbooks]. (2013, November 10). Synthetic Phonics Tutorial.
Powell, A. (2015, January 16). Cloze Procedure.
Reading Rockets. (2014, April 15). Students Take Charge: Reciprocal Teaching.
The Balanced Literacy Diet. (2011, November 24). Picky Puppet: Promoting Phonemic Awareness.
"Click or Clunk?": A Student Comprehension Self-Check. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from http://www.interventioncentral.org/academic-interventions/reading-comprehension/reading-comprehension-practice
Elementary Spelling Inventory. Retrieved from: http://readingandwritingproject.com/public/resources/assessments/spelling/spelling_elementary.pdf
Schacter, J. (n.d.). The Master Teacher Series: Comprehension. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from http://www.teachingdoctors.com/resources/pdf/sample_mtrc.pdf
Florida Center for Reading Research. (2015). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from http://fcrr.org/for-educators/
Welcome To Professor Garfield. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from http://www.professorgarfield.org/pgf_home.html
Comprehension: Intervention Example
This s the strategy I used with my student. I determined shed needed extra support with comprehension, particularly with informational texts due to the fact that she achieved a frustration level on her running record even though her accuracy rate would have qualified it as independent. In order to progress monitor the effect of this intervention, I had my student read a text at her instructional level with me once a week to have her practice utilizing the strategy. After several weeks, I would administer a new running record with an oral retell and literal, inferential, and critical questions, at her instructional level. If it becomes an independent level, that would help me determine if she is making improvements with monitoring her comprehension.
"Click or Clunk"
Reciprocal Teaching
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