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Transcript of Timeline Presentation
Monody- Featured solo song with instrumental accompaniment, its goal was to recreate the musical dramatic art of ancient Greece.
Basso continuo- (Bass part) Was often played by two instruments (cello for example).
Major-minor tonality- Was a system that was established in the Baroque era, as was the equal temperament tuning system
Opera- a large scale music drama that combines poetry , acting, scenry, and costumes with signing and instrumental music.
This era was a time of turbulent changes in a society that saw religious wars (Protestants vs. Catholics) as well as exploration and colonization of the New World. Also this era saw a rise of middle-class culture with music making centered in the home.
: A sacred form with a single Latin text, for use in the Mass and other religous services.
: A vocal work without instrumental accompaniment
: this movement strove to recapture the loyalty of its people with more accessible music.
: the most important secular genre of the era
1400-1474: Guilaume Dufay, known as the transitional figure to the Renaissance.
1550: Catholic Counter-Reformation.
1450-1550: During this period composera are experimented cantus firmus.
1550-1620: Italian Madrigal,polyphonic secular music that were peformed in groups.
Music played a prominent role in the ritual of the church during the Renaissance. In this era is where the definition between secular music and sacred music began. The Renaissance also saw a rise in amateur music making. Renaissance scared music was generally performed a cappella and features a fuller constant sound. A popular name in th Renaissance era is Josquin des Prez who exerted a powerful influence on generation of composers to follow. His major works 100 motets, at least 17 masses.
A Gregorian Chant
Consists of a single-line melody; it is monophonic in texture, and lacking harmony and counter point.
Refers to the set order of church services and to the structure of each service.
The combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines.
A fixed pattern of long and short notes that is repeated or varied.
Used in Western music, variety of scale patterns
The Renaissance Period
The Middle Ages
The fall of the Roman Empire marked the beginning of a one-thousand year period known as the Middle Ages.The Middle Age music is the earliest documented music that we have today. Early music of the christian church is testimony to the spiritual nature of middle ages. The culture of this period was shaped in large part by the rise of monasteries.
590-604: The development of Gregorian Chant.
1030: A new method to teach signing was invented by monk, Guido de Arezzo.
1150-1250: Rhythmic notation first appeared
Josquin Des Prez
Johann Sebastian Bach
Bach was heir to the polyphonic art of the past.He is the culminating figure of the Baroque style and one of the giants in the history of music. He is the most prolific composer, he wrote in three areas: orchestral music/concertos, sacred vocal music, & keyboard music.
He was best known in his lifetime as an organist, he also wrote many organ compositions, including free, improvisatory works and strict forms.
Major works: Sacred vocal music
- 200 church cantatas, 4 passions, and the Mass in B minor.
-Orchestral music (4 suites).
-Toccata and Fugue in D minor
-The Art of Fugue
Works of Bach
Yo-Yo-Ma, Cello Suites
George Frederic Handel (1685-1759)
Handel embodies its worldliness of the spirituality of the late Baroque. Handel's rhythm has the powerful drive of the late Baroque. He leaned toward diatonic harmony, with melodies rich in expression that rise and fall in great majestic arches. Handel mainly known for his large-scale work, The Messiah. It contains the famous Hallelujah Chorus, which has been interpreted by such contemporary artists as Quincy Jones.
Handel's more than forty operas tell stories of heroes and adventures, in ingenious musical settings. He was very prolific as well in composing instrumental music, his most important works are hos concertos and his two memorable orchestral suites, the Water Music (1717) and Music for the Royal Fireworks (1749).
Major Works: -Over 40 Italian operas (Rinaldo and Julius Caesar
- English oratorios
-Other vocal music
Keyboard and chamber music
Works of Handel
Music for the Royals Fireworks
Vivaldi was ordained in the church while in his twenties and became known as "the red priest". One of the most prolific composers of his era, he wrote much chamber music and numerous operas, as well as cantatas, an oratorio, and an extended setting of the Gloria,which is today one of his most performed works.
Works of Vivaldi
Major works: -Over 230 violin concertos (Le quattro stagioni)
- Other solo concertos (bassoon, cello, flute, recorder)
The most well-known today is The Four Seasons.
The Classical Period
About the Classical Era
The Classical era is characterized by order, objectivity, and harmonious proportion. This is reflected in the art and architecture of the time, modeled on ancient Greek and Roman styles. Classical music is characterized by a singable lyrical melody.
Themes- are used as building blocks in a composition.
Motives- short melodic or rhythmic fragments.
ostinatos- repeated short patterns.
absolute music- has no specfic pictorial or literary program.
Multimovement cycles- three or four movements
Major Composers of the Classical Era:
Joseph Haydn- Chamber music, including 68 string quartets,Over 100 symphonies, and Sacred vocal music.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart- 23 string quartets, 17 pno sonatas, 40 symphonies, Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Idomeneo, and Die Zauberflote.
Ludwig van Beethoven- 9 symphonies, Concertos, Chamber music, 32 piano sonatas, Choral music, including Missa solemnis, and songs and 1 song cycle.
Works of the Classic Era:
Beethoven- Moonlight Sonata
About the Romantic Period
Romantic music is characterized by memorable melodies, richly expressive harmony, and broad, expanded forms. Romantic composers used nationalistic, folkloric, and exotic subjects. Romanticism in music in also characterized by the idea that a composer should be entwined with music, and that musicians should respond pragmatically, honestly, fully, freely, and appropriately to their individual creative impulses.
Lied- solo voice and piano,was a favored Romantic genre.
Etudes- highly virtuosic and technical study pieces.
System-note- system designed for easy reading.
Program music- instrumental music with a literary or pictorial association supplied b the composer
Major Composers of Romantic Period
Some Major composers of Baroque opera is Henry Purcell, Claudio Monteverdi, George Frideric Handel.
The most important new genre of the Baroque era was opera, alarge scale music drama that combines poetry and acting with singing and instrumental music. Opera became popular during the Baroque period as compoders began learning comlex music ornamentation for the voice. Some opera writers wrote bases on mythology and Roman history.
The opera of the early eighteenth century accurately reflect the society from which it sprang. In the Classical era, two types of Italian opera prevailed: opera buff (comic opera) and opera seria (serious opera). In opera, each aria allows for emotional expression, while recitative moves the action foward. Opera had become the branch of musical entertainment that reacd the widest public, and the opera house was now a center of experimentation.
Major composers: Wolfgang Mozart and Christoph Gluck.
Romantic opera developed distinct national styles in Italy, Germany, and France. Both opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera) were favored in Italy.
Major composer Giuseppe Verdi is bsest known for his operas, which embody the spirit of Romantic drama and passion.
Impressionism in music is characterized by modal and exotic scales, unresolved dissonances, parallel chords, rich orchestral color, and free rhythm, all generally cast in small-scale programmatic forms
The most important French Impressionist composer was Claude Debussy. His orchestral work "The Afternoon of a Faun".
Russian composer Igor Stravinsky experimented with rhythm, new instrumental combinations, the percussive use of dissonance, as well as polyrhythmic and polytonal writing.
Stravinsky's early works, including his ballets The Fire bird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring, are strongly nationalistic; the last of there re-creates rites of ancient Russia.
The Expressionist movement manifested itself in the music of Arnold Schoenberg and his followers. They broke down the traditional tonal system and developed the twelve-tone method.
Arnold Schoenburg is the major composer. An example of his major work is Pierrot Iunaire, No.18
Was a twentieth century trend in which composers sought return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism".
Carl Orff was a major composer and a example of his work was O fortuna, from Carmina burana
The history of Jazz
Jazz drew elements from Afican traditions and Western popular and art music. Its roots are in West African music and nineteenth-century African-American ceremonial and work songs.
Jazz has made a powerful influence on the development popular musical styles and on international culture. It has gone on a series of changes from the 1920's to present day.
The Swing Era and Beyond
In the 1930's and 1940's the highly creative era of early jazz gave way to the swing or also called big band era. By this time, jazz was America's voice in popular music.
"The Very Thought of You"
"It don't mean a thing"
Foster is perhaps the first American to make a living as a professional songwriter, but in this era, composers made little profit off their production.
Stephen Foster is often considered America's first great songwriters. His music distinctly American, and his classical songs, including "Oh Susanna! and Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair.
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair was not a huge success in his lifetime but it reached millions nearly a century later. It inspired the 1960's sitcom of the same name.
American musical theater has roots in European operetta which was brought to America by immigrant composers. Musicals feature romantic plots, comic moments, appealing melodies, and large ensembles and dance numbers. As in opera a successful musical is often a collaboration between lyricist and composer.
Two major contruibtors to Musical Theater is George Gershwin and Lenaord Bernstein. They usued a combination of Classical and Pop music creating a new song that is truly American.
Known for his Tin Pan alley songs and musical theater productions, George Gershwin sought to unite elements of jazz and classical music. His masterpiece is his folk opera Porgy and Bess.
Leonard Bernstein is remembered as a conductor and composer of symphonic and choral music, film music, and musical theater.
Rock and Roll
The rise of rock and roll in the 1950s is one of the most significant phenomena in twentieth- century music history. Rock had its origins in rhythm and blues, country western, pop and gospel: early rock crossed racial lines, featuring white and black performers.
The rise rock and roll and its offspring rock is the most important music phenomenon of the past sixty years. Economically rock music has become a multibillion-dollar industry: socially , it has had a far- reaching impact on fashion, language, politics, and religion.
Rock and Roll &Beyond
The 60's and 70's saw the rise saw the rise of many ecletic musical styles, including acid rock, art rock, Latin rock, heavy metal, punk rock, disco, reggae, and new wave. Music videos and MTV were important media for the dissemination of rock in the 1980s; other developments led to the emergence of rap. In the 1990's and beyond, grunge rock, alternative rock, and global pop have captured the listening audience, along with numerous revivals by well known artists and groups.
Composers of Rock and Roll
Mid 1960s: new groups revitalized rock and roll. The Beatles, The Rolling Stone, California Bands, Bob Dylan, etc.
1970s: Elvis, Bob Marley, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, etc.
1980s: MTV premiere, Micheal Jackson, Prince, etc.