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virginia rodales

on 15 May 2015

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Russian Revolution
Russia at war and revolution
The 1905 Revolution
From 1914 to 1916, 3.5 million industrial jobs were created due to war contracts.
Conditions were worse than before the war.
Of the 13 million Russian soldiers, 9.5 million were casualties by 1917.
Despite this numbers, food production remained high until 1916.
The middle classes and aristocracy
By the end of 1916 their discontent with the Tsar was clear.
Middle class activists set up medical organisations along the Red Cross.
The Council of United Nobility was calling for the Tsar to step down.
The March Revolution
In January and February 1917, strikes broke all over Russia.
Even soldiers supported the strikes.
On March 7th, steelworkers went on strike joining thousands of women (women's day). During the following days the number of striking workers rose.
On March 12th the army refuses the Tsar's order to put the revolt down.
On March 15th the Tsar abdicates.
Russia was a vast but backward country.
Its industry was underdeveloped.
Ruled by a Tsar.
Its people were poor and uneducated
Different Nationalities
40% of the population spoke Russian as their first language.
Census 1897
The Tsarist System
80% of Russia's population
Middle classes
Nicholas II
Opposition to the Tsar
Liberals or Cadets
Middle class people who wanted grater
in Russia.

Britain had a king but also a powerful parliament
Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs)
"In struggle you take your rights!"
Social Democratic Party
They lived in communes.
Kulaks: Prosperous peasant farmers.
Famine and starvation.
Short life expectancy.
Peasants were still using ancient farming techniques.
LAND: divided in large fields, each family was allotted a strip of land, the subdivision of the fields was organized by the Mir.
MIR: peasant councils
EDUCATION: there was no basic education.
Later XIX century: Senior minister
Sergei Witte introduced policies that
led to rapid industrial growth.

OIL and COAL production trebled, while IRON production quadrupled.

PEASANTS left land to work in the new developing industries. They were looking for a new way of life or trying to earn some money before returning for the harvest.
Filth and squalor
Terrible food +
everyday facts of life
No government regulations on child labour, hours, safety or education.
Trade unions were illegal.
Low pay.
12 to 15-hours day
unguarded machinery.
Brutal discipline.
Small Middle class: shopkeepers, lawyers and university lecturers.

CAPITALISTS (landowners, industrialists, banker, traders and businessmen) they began to emerge as a result of industrialisation.
Main concerns: management of the economy and controlling their workforce.
They had vast estates, town ad country houses ad elegant lifestyles.

1.5% of the society.

Owned 25% of the land.

They were a key part of the Tsar's government.

In the countryside they dominated the local assemblies or zemtsva.
Born 1868
Crowned as Tsar in 1896
Married to Alexandra of Hesse.
"Little Father of Russia"
Totally commited to the idea of the Tsar as AUTOCRAT, absolute ruler of Russia.
He was appointed by God.
Nicholas regularly rejected request for reform.
He was not a very effective as ruler, unable to concentrate on the business of being Tsar.
He was a kind, loving family man but did not really understand the changes Russia was going through.
The Tsar's regime was very strong in some ways.

Resistance was limited.

Peasants had their lives controlled by the Mir.

The Mir was overruled by land captains (appointed by the by the Tsar).
There were special emergency laws that allowed the local governors to:
order the police to arrest suspected opponentsof the regime.
ban individuals from serving any goverment organization.
make suspects pay heavy fines
introduce censorship of books or leaflets or newspapers
The provisional Government
Revolution was the answer to people's troubles.

Main aim: carve up huge states and hand them to the peasants.

Violent struggle
Followed Marx's ideas

Led by Lenin
It was the job of the party to create Revolution
Believed that Russia was not ready for revolution
Petrograd Soviet
Had support from workers in key industries.

Vladimir Ilich Lenin
Born in 1870
Graduated from St.Petersburg.
Exiled to Siberia 1897-1900
1900-1905 lived in many countries
Took part in 1905 Revolution
Returned to russia after first revolution in 1917
About Lenin:
" The overall planner of the revolution" SJ. LEE (1987)
" Extraordinary figure was first and foremost a professional revolutionary. A man of iron will and inflexible ambition." The Times writing about Lenin after his death.
The Army
Soldiers were enthusiastic.
Peasants felt they were defending their country against Germans.
They were short of rifles, ammunition, artillery, shells and even boots.
Alienation of society
The Tsar's collapse
Failure at war
Inefficiency ruling the country
Mutiny in the army
Formation of soviets
Discontent in the countryside
Food, fuel and raw materials shortages
January 22nd, 1905
Father Gapon at The Winter Palace.
The troubled years
The preface for another revolution

How the Tzar survived?
* The Tzar´s uncle is assassinated in Moscow where siking workers put barricades on the streets

* Sailors aboard the Potemkin (a battle ship)mutinied

*September 1905 GENERAL STRIKE
Bloody Sunday
Three urgent decisions

ar or peace?
Distribute land or ask peasants to wait?
How best to get food to city workers?
After the collapse of the Tsar's government the members of the Duma set the provisional government up.
They had to share power with the
Petrogard society.
It was a mixed group. Among them there was a lawyer called
Alexander Kerensky.
Provisional Government's problems got worse.
Bolsheviks led protest against war turned into a rebellion.
Kerensky produced evidence that Lenin had been helped by the Germans.
Kerensky used troops to crush rebelion and took over government

Kerensky was in a difficult situation. Upper and middle classes expect him to restore order.
Real power lay with the Soviets. It has a Bolshevik majority and
Leon Trotsky

Born 1879 into a respectable farming family
Bright at school and University
Politically active. Arreted in 1900 and deported to Siberia
Became a Bolshevik activist in the years before WW1
In 1917 he returned to russia and played a key role in Bolshevik revolution
About him...
" The Bolshevik party was greatly strengthened by Trosky's entry into the party" . "He was careful to use examples and comparisons from real life of the audience"
. Historian Orlando Fang

"Some people close to Trotsky were even inclined to see in hi the real leader of the Russian revolution". "Trotsky's most obvious gifts were his talents as an orator and writer"

Anatoly Lunacharsky. (Bolshevik activist)
September 1917
Komilov marched his troops towards Moscow to get rid of the provisional government and the bolsheviks and restore order.
Kerensky asked for help to the Bolsheviks.
Bolsheviks organized into the Red Guards.
Komilov's troops refused to fight members of the soviets.
October 1917
Kerensky's government had lost army support.
Lost peasant support
Failed to bring food into towns.
Bolsheviks were promising
November 1917
The 6th of November the Red Guards led by Leon Trotsky took control of post offices,bridges and the state bank.

7th they stormed the winter palace and arrested the ministers of the provisional government.
On 8th November an announcment was made to Russian people:
"The provisional government has been overthrown. The Cause for wich the people have fought has been made safe:the immediate proposal of a democratic peace, The end of landowners'rights,workers'control over production. The creation of a Soviet government.Long live the revolution of workers,soldiers and peasants." Proclamation of the Petrograd Soviet
Lenin set up the Council of people's Commissars.
Announced that Russia was asking for peace with Germany.
Peasants were given the Tsar's and the church's lands.
Factories and industries put into the hands of workers.
Elections were held in late 1917.
The Bolshevik dictatorship
Elections were held in 1917.

Bolsheviks did not gain majority. Peasant-based Socialist Revolutionaries were the biggest party.
Lenin sent the red ards to close down the Assembly and, after brief protest, the Assembly was forgotten.
Lenin believed that the dictatorship of the proletariat would give way to true communism
July 1917
Trotsky was put in charge of negotiating a peace treaty.
1918 Lenin had to accept German terms and sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)
It was a severe blow to Russia,including:
34% population
32% agricultural land
54% Industry

Imposition of a fine of 300 million gold roubles.
Hypnotic influence
The Tsarina was left in control of the cities.
She was very influenced by Rasputin.
Rasputin advised the royal family on how to run the empire.
After "controlling" the Tsar's son's haemophilia he became very important for the Romanov.
He was murdered on December 30th 1916 by Russian nobles.
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