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Psychological Disorders


sediqha hashim

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Psychological Disorders

Zinab Sadat
Schizophrenia ?
What is
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that makes it hard to: Tell the difference between what is real and not real; Think clearly; Have normal emotional responses; Act normally in social situations
What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
Symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into categories of postive and negative symptoms.
Schizophrenia symptoms usually develop slowly over months or years. Sometimes you may have many symptoms, and at other times you may only have a few symptoms
At first, you may have the following symptoms:

•Irritable or tense feeling

•Trouble concentrating

•Trouble sleeping
As the illness continues, you may have problems with thinking, emotions, and behavior, including:

•Bizarre behaviors

•Hearing or seeing things that are not there (hallucinations)


•Lack of emotion (flat affect)

•Problems paying attention

•Strongly held beliefs that are not real (delusions)

•Thoughts that "jump" between different topics (“loose associations”)
Symptoms depend on the type of schizophrenia you have.

Paranoid schizophrenia symptoms may include:


•Anger or arguing

•False beliefs that others are trying to harm you or your loved ones

Disorganized schizophrenia symptoms may include:

•Childlike behavior

•Problems thinking and explaining your ideas clearly

•Showing little emotion

Catatonic schizophrenia symptoms may include:

•Grimacing or other odd expressions on the face

•Lack of activity

•Not responding much to other people
•Rigid muscles and posture
In schizophrenia , the concordance rate is about
50 percent in identical twins and about 17 percent in fraternal twins. Abnormal eye movements might represent deficits in executive cognitive functions, normally carried out by the frontal lobes, and in goal-related behaviors in particular.
Environmental Causes
Rates of schizophrenia are somewhat higher in urban environments.
may arise from poverty, poor nutrition, and the stress related to racism.
It is five times more likely in lower than in the middle or higher socioeconomic groups.
Treatments for schizophrenia &
Typical anti psychotics primary benefit patients with schizophrenia by reducing positive symptoms. Negative symptoms, such as social withdrawal and emotional disturbances, do not appear to respond much to these medications.
Tardive dyskinesia is a common and troubling side effect of these drugs. ( tardive refers to 'slow' and dyskinesia means 'difficulty moving' )
Advantages of these newer medications is a reduction in negative symptoms as well as in positive symptoms, in some patients.
Disadvantages :
Weight gain and diabetes in many patients and still carry the risk of producing tardive dyskinesia.
What is a Mood Disorder?
Mood disorder is the term designating a group of diagnoses in the DSM-IV classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature
Major Depressive disorder (MDD)
DSM-IV defines major depressive episodes as periods pf pervasive sadness that last for at least 2 weeks.
Genetics of depression
Genes play a major role in MDD
33 percent of depression in twins appear.
A number of genes have been implicated in depression, including those involved with serotonin reuptake and the clock genes.
In the absence os stressful life events, having a short copy is not sufficient to cause depression.
Prenatal events might contribute to a vulnerability to mood disorder. Stress often serves as a trigger for depressive episodes.
Treatments for major depression
Treatment for major depressive disorders takes a number of pathways. Prescription of some type of antidepressant medication, partculary an SSRI.
The ability to stimulate neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
Animal studies, drugs that block neurogenesis also prevent the therapeutic effects of antidepressants (ibid).
30-35 % with MDD treated SSRIs meet criteria.
* Cognitive behavioral therapy typically produces the best long-term outcomes for patients with depression.
What is Bipolar Disorder?
Bipolar disoder is characterized be alternating cycles of depression and mania. Mania consists of " a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive.
Genetic Causes
Genes appear to play a more significant role in bipolar disoder than in major depressive disorder.
Adoption studies also support a powerful role of genetic in the development of bipolar disoder.
Bipolar disorder is 3 to 4 times more common.
Environmental Factors
As for many of the environmental factors Diet is a great cause.
Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, generally found in fish might provide some protection from bipolar disorder.
The manic phase may last from days to months. It can include the following symptoms:

•Easily distracted

•Little need for sleep

•Poor judgment

•Poor temper control

•Reckless behavior and lack of self control

•Binge eating, drinking, and/or drug use

•Poor judgment

•Sex with many partners (promiscuity)

•Spending sprees
Major depression
Bipolar Disorder
Therapy will help
30 to 40 percent
Both genetucs & enviromental effects.
Moods last about 1 week
Moods lasts about 2 weeks
ECT therapy relaxant while seizures are induced by electricity.
Any duration if hospitalization is necessary.
Anxiety Disorders
What is Anxiety Disorder?
Anxiety disorder take many forms, but all share the core element of anxiety, a strong negative emotion arising from the anticipation of danger.
Treatment for anxiety disorders typically combines medication with cognitive- behavioral therapy to help the person learn to manage reactions to anxiety producing stimuli.
SSRIs most commonly prescribed medications.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common condition. Genes may play a role. Stress may also contribute to the development of GAD.

Anyone can develop this disorder, even kids. Most people with the disorder report that they have been anxious for as long as they can remember. GAD occurs somewhat more often in women than in men.
•Difficulty concentrating



•Problems falling or staying asleep, and sleep that is often restless and unsatisfying

•Restlessness, and often becoming startled very easily
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
ndividuals with OCD are haunted by repetive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions), the need to carry out repetive behaviors ( compulsions) such as hand washing or counting objects, or both.
There are several theories about the cause of OCD, but none have been confirmed
About 20% of people with OCD have tics, which suggests the condition may be related to Tourette syndrome. However, this link is not clear.
Typical obsessions include thoughts of germs and disease, fear for safety of the self or others, symmetry, and religious or moral concerns.
counting & arranging
OCD is treated using medications and therapy.

The first medication usually considered is a type of antidepressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
Panic Disorder

A person experiences "intense fear or discomfort" accompanied by strong sympathetic arousalleading to heart palpitations,sweating,trembling, and see an anxiety disorder.
Panic disorder is diagnosed when repeated panic attacks are followed by at least one month of worrying about having another attack.
Panic disorder is much less common than single panic attacks affecting between 2/3 percent of the population
For panic disorder generally consists of either antidepressant medications, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a combination of the two.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Current term for a condition that was known
previously as "shell shock" or "battle fatigue".
Combat experience is a common trigger fo PTSD.
PTSD , people exposed to trauma experience recurrent dreams about the traumatic experience recurrent dreams about the traumatic event.

ptsd usually affects between 3/4 percent of american adults in a givin year. Childern appear more vulerable than adults.
Typically consists of cognitive behavioral therapy with or without antianxiety or antidepressant medication.
Propranolol, which blocks the effects of glucocorticoids in the brain, might prevent PTSD.
Autism literally means "within oneself" According to the DSM-IV, autism is characterized be deficits in three behavioral domains.
social Relatedness
Normal range of interests.
Autism is frequently described as a spectrum of disorders because the severity of the observed deficits & the course of the disorder can vary widely from individual to individual.

30-60 percent will be mentally retarded.
Autism is a physical condition linked to abnormal biology and chemistry in the brain. The exact causes of these abnormalities remain unknown, but this is a very active area of research. There are probably a combination of factors that lead to autism
Treated with intensive , early childhood learning experiences provided during most of the child's wasking hours .
For the small minority of high- functioning childern who already have some spontaneous language ability, this aggessive intervention can produce nearly normal functioniong.
Attention Defict Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
ADHD is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination.
Celebrities with ADHD!
Diagnosed in 7-8 percent of American school children
. Affects about 4 percent of adults.
ADHD include inattentiveness
, impulsivity, & hyperactivity.
Depression, lack of sleep, learning disabilities, tic disorders, and behavior problems may be confused with, or appear with, ADHD
A large treatment outcome study found that a combination of individually tailored doses of medication in conjunction with behavioral therapy was the most effective treatment approach'.
Antisocial behavior ,or the deliberate harming of others.
They exhibit such behavior that meet the DSM-IV criteria. for antisocial personality disorder,(APD). "pervassive pattern of disregard for & violation of the rights of others
3 percent of men and 1 pecent of women meet the criteria for APD,
AntiSocial Personality Disorder
Although APD & psychopathy are often used interchangeably, this practice has led to significant confusion
Psychopaths lack guilt, empathy, and normal emotional responses while callously using others to achieve their personal goals.
Traditional medications used for ADHD, which include METHYLPHENIDATE (Ritalin), DEXTROAMPHETAMINE (Dextrostat), and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall) are known dopamine agonists.
The causes of antisocial personality disorder are unknown.
Be able to act witty and charming

Be good at flattery and manipulating other people's emotions

Break the law repeatedly

Disregard the safety of self and others

Have problems with substance abuse

Lie, steal, and fight often

Not show guilt or remorse

Often be angry or arrogant
xistins treatment programs for violent offenders are frequently based on learning models that emphasize anger control, social skills & moral reasoning.

sychopathy requires additional training in " character formation".However, many nations view criminal psychopathy as untreatable & rely on incarceration to protect the public.
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