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Copy of Phenomenology

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Gihan Fradi

on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Phenomenology

- (See Epoché) concerned with how objects are constituted in pure consciousness, setting aside questions of any relationship of the phenomenon to the world in which one lives.

- 1“for that which makes a some-”thing” what it is-and without which it could not be what it is” (Husserl 1982)
2 The internal meaning of a lived experience. (van Manen 1992)

- the sociological study of the rules and rituals underlying ordinary social activities and interactions.

Existential (Existence)
- the state or fact of being

- an attempt to show the prephilosophical understanding of man in the world. (Stuart et al., 1974) To interpret text in a dialogic fashion (O'Leary 2010)
By Gihan Fradi

1. the study of the development of human consciousness and self-awareness, investigating and exploring human experiences

- Was founded by Husserl :)
3. Phenomenology is also an approach rooted in “everyday lived experiences” of human beings.
What is it like to be ... ?

4. Phenomenology is not autobiographical research
Emphasis is on the phenomenon itself.

5. There are several orientations to phenomenology.
The ones will focus on are:
transcendental, hermeneutic, and phenomenography phenomenology.
Transcendental Phenomenology
Hermaneutic (consciousness not separated) Research
(van Manen 1990)

Turning to the Nature of Lived Experience which interests us.
It is a study of real people and experiences where someone is trying to make sense of some aspect of human existence.

Investigating experience as we live it
This structure believes that “being experienced” is a result of having living life deeply.

Reflecting on essential themes
Phenomenological research should make the distinction between appearance and essence, our own experiences, and what grounds those experiences.
is the empirical study of the differing ways in which people experience, perceive, apprehend,
understand, conceptualize various phenomena
in and aspects of the world around us.

What is the essence of this experience?

What does it mean to be (a bulimic woman, a grandmother, a pregnant woman)?
How does one interpret the world?

What is the meaning of an
individual existence?

Husserl; Giorgi; Moustakas steps

No interpretation

Bracketing (removing yourself)

1) Choose one picture

2) Think what experience you
want to know more about

3) Which questions would you ask to understand this experience?

4) How would you “collect data”
(interview, immerse yourself, protocol writing, read diaries, memo, observe, using literature, viewing art work, etc)

5) What is the best way to get to know more about this experience (sample size, cultural group, gender, age, etc)?
Seinfield - Close Talker
Because these structures shape our experience, then

we need to look at the experiences themselves to get at the essential structures.
1. Phenomenology is primarily a study of essences and the meanings of cases....
Phenomenologists seek not only to uncover what individuals experience but also how they experience the phenomenon.

2. Phenomenology is an approach, substantive philosophy, and research method-
Steps taken-
a. Experiencing the phenomenon
b. Examining the phenomenon
c. Descriptive writing of phenomenon

Challenges in Transcendental Phenomenology

Two immediate challenges present themselves to the phenomenological researcher:

1. How do researchers help participant express their world as directly as possible?

2. How do researchers explicate these dimensions so that the lived-world is revealed?
Challenges in Transcendental Phenomenology

For Husserl, meanings uncovered by the researcher emerge out of the researcher’s attitude and way the researcher poses questions.

In particular, the researcher aims to ‘bracket’ or suspend previous assumptions or understandings in order to be open to the phenomenon as it appears.

Husserl noted that we need to go through a series of reductions. This is also referred to as bracketing.
Principles of Transcendental Phenomenology

Phenomenological reduction
- Bracketing

- Communicate phenomena

The search for essence-
present meaning to community

A phenomenon is defined as an object or aspect known through the senses. You can think of phenomenon as anything that humans experience.

The experience of living with diabetes.
Andrzej Szklarski (2007) - phenomenological study among 178 teenagers in order to better
understand the essence of conflict experiences.

Participants wrote reports about their experience with conflicts.

After that, Szklarski analyzed the data following 6 steps:

– Relevant expressions were written down
– Similar statements were grouped together
– Repetitions of the same content were eliminated
Hypothetical identification
– Themes were identified
– The theme had to follow three rules:
(a) be expressed explicitly in at least one report;
(b) appear (explicitly or implicitly) in the majority of reports;
(c) could not be contradicted by any of the reports
Final identification
– Topics that fulfilled the 3 application criteria were considerate essential

Anger, mental strain, and unfair treatment were
in the essence of these teenagers conflict experiences.

The research showed the need for strategies to help teenagers to reduce and channel their anger.
Understanding conflicts
The art of writing an rewriting
“Writing has begun...when one has managed to enter the space of the text...the space of the text is what we create in writing but it is also in some sense already there”
(Van Manen).

Maintaining a strong and oriented relation
A researcher must form a strong relation with the question or notion but must not settle for falsities, preconceived ideas, or superficiality.

Balancing the research context by considering parts and whole.

A researcher must make sure that they look at the parts of the question asked but also make sure to step back and address the whole idea and decide how it fits within the parts.
How do I research from a Hermeneutic approach?
We can’t truly remove ourselves from our research

– Researchers write their bias

– it is not possible ignore our culture, our gender, our age, etc.

The data was collected through
interviews, personal diaries, and demographic questionnaires

The data were analyzed following three-step Heideggerian phenomenological process:

Thematic analysis
– Each case was read several times
– Themes were identified.

Analysis of episodes
– Stories (which captured the lived experience in such a way
that it could help understand their story) were created from this process.

Identification of paradigm cases
– Each interview was summarized
– Comparisons among the paradigm cases.
Trustworthiness of interpretation
(Heideggerian phenomenology):

Recognition that
bulimic women are the experts on the experience of bulimia

Maintenance of a personal diary
recording thoughts, ideas and reactions to the interviews.

Validating the findings with experts
in bulimia nervosa and qualitative research

This research was used to make recommendations to health care professionals in providing sensitive, empathetic care.
‘‘Who would I be without Danny?’’

The aim of this phenomenological case study was to understand the lifeworld of an adult who grew up with a person who had Down syndrome in order to understand the experience and its impact on that individual.

Three interviews, each one with a distinct purpose

(a) focus on the individual’s life history
(b) details of the specific experience under investigation are discussed.
(c) the participant were asked to reflect on the meaning of their experience and whether or not it has impacted on their life and choices.

The researcher follows six steps:
Removed the interviewer’s questions from the transcribing work
Omit redundant material
Separated every significant statement
Placed emerging themes
Created a case study profile
Suggested generalizations to be applied in a larger population

Although this kind of methodology privileges the lived experience of only one individual, it allows inferences about a larger population.
My brother has Down Syndrome
How to frame
the questions?


Understanding differing ways
in which people experience
and apprehend phenemena

Write yourself in the research

Interview; diaries; writing;
poetry; art work; observing
How to set up a study?
Conducting a mini study
inlay, 2009)

1. What counts as phenomenology?
Through our literature search thus far, we have yet to find a single definition that represents phenomenology while, at the same time, crediting the myriad of different orientations and approaches.

2. What is the aim:
Some phenomenologists, like Giorgi, like to shed light on essential and general structures of a phenomenon.

In contrast, there are phenomenologists that concentrate on the narratives emerging from data.

3. Description or interpretation?
Phenomenological research starts with concrete descriptions of lived situations, and avoiding abstract intellectual generalizations.

The lines become blurred then when the phenomenological researcher goes beyond the explicit/ surface meaning and aims to 'read between the lines'.

This approach generates uncertainty as it involved going beyond what the person said, thus entering the realm of interpretation.
Critical Debates
The Bomb
What counts as research?

(Garfinkel, 1984)

- Negotiating the price of a bus fare

- Starting a conversation with the person in the next stall or urinal in a public bathroom

- Standing while attending a class even though there are seats available

- Getting up and helping a waiter serve dishes to your table

- Wearing a costume in public when it is not Halloween

Ethnomethodology is grounded in phenomenological tradition with direct human interaction as the focus.

Ethnomethodologies are often designed to interrupt, sometimes playfully, patterns of activity to see what will happen.

Ethnomethodology is also an area in sociology originating in the work of Harold Garfinkel in the 1960s.
Breaching Experiment Examples
inlay, 2009)

4. How do we set aside researcher subjectivity?
One thing that phenomenologists all agree on is that researcher subjectivity is inevitable. The debate present here is whether or not it is necessary to engage in reduction and, if so, what that involves.

5. Is phenomenology science or art?
Phenomenology is a human science. As a result, it aims to be systematic, methodical, critical and general (Giorgi, 1997).

It also intertwines science with art. This is demonstrated when phenomenologist engage in modes such as art, poetry, and literary prose (Finlay, 2009).

6. Is phenomenology a modernist or post-modernist project or neither?
Phenomenology might be better described as 'postmodern' if modernism is aligned to a worldview of an ordered universe.

However, as Giorgi states, “postmodern is such an elusive term that i [sic] wouldn't know how to situate phenomenology without going through many multiple definitions”
(Giorgi, email correspondence October 10, 2012).
Six questions contested in phenomenology
Six questions contested in phenomenology
In the written material you will find:

Further information about these topics presented today

Key terms

Key figures

Read me first

And much more!
Transcendental Phenomenology

Experiences always occur in a context and that context is what is referred to as our life-world.

.Study of phenomena as they appear through consciousness

Transcendental Phenomenology

What is the researchers job?

The task of the researcher therefore is to bring out these dimensions and show they are SOCIALLY SHARED as well as experienced in individual ways.

Husserl believed that under every experience or phenomenon there were essential structures.

Here comes Heidegger....................................

Can we really remove ourselves?
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