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Transcript of Absolutism
Unrest in the Middle East and Africa:
The Age of Absolutism
What makes a leader an ABSOLUTE monarch?
Power over government and the church
Belief in divine right
What problems can result from a system of absolute rule?
Monarchs often abused power
Created situations where people were dependent on the government
Spent $ on selves and not always the country and people
1) Rulers believed in DIVINE RIGHT. What is the definition of divine right?
2) This king fought wars to try to expand Spanish power, but was defeated by England.
3) The queen of England when the English fleet defeated the Spanish Armada.
4) What was the most significant effect of the defeat of the Spanish Armada?
Triumph of Parliament in England
What is Parliament?
Representative assembly in England (similar to our Congress)
Elizabeth I (1558-1603):
Worked with Parliament, but made most decisions
Defeated the Spanish Armada
Popular and successful
Died without an heir (no children)
James I 1603-1625):
Did not allow his actions to be questioned
Got rid of Parliament
Collected taxes on his own
New translation of the Bible (King James version)
Charles I (1625-1642):
Ruled England without Parliament
Beginning of English Civil War
English Civil War
Parliament put Charles I on trial
-Supporters of Parliament
-Led by Oliver Cromwell
-Supporters of Charles I (monarchy)
Led by Oliver Cromwell
Puritan-VERY strict rule
After Cromwell's death in 1658, many people were tired of military rule and strict Puritan ways of life. The newly elected Parliament invited Charles II to return to England as king.
The Glorious Revolution (1688)
William and Mary
Absolute Rule In Russia....
Peter the Great
Took throne at age 10
Studied western technology-wanted to make Russia more modern
Policy of WESTERNIZATION-adoption of western ideas, culture, technology
Took control of the Church
Wanted to strengthen the military
Attempted to find a warm water port
Catherine the Great
German born, married heir to the throne
Efficient and energetic, but absolute rule
Reorganized the government
Stronger legal system
Education for boys and girls
Made life more difficult for peasants
Wanted to expand borders and add more land
Found warm-water port
Wanted to expand boundaries
United States is democratic, but that is not true for other nations around the world
Rulers may still be concerned with money, power
Arab Spring (2011)-revolutions began in the Middle East have have spread all over the world
"Rulers did not give their people what they needed to survive and thrive in the modern world."
France Under the Rule of Louis XIV
Louis XIV (1643-1715):
Strong absolute monarch
Strengthened the army and economy
Spent lots of $$$$$
French domination in Europe
The Palace of Versailles:
Built as a symbol of France's (and the king's) power
Belief that the power to rule comes directly from God
English Fleet vs. Spanish Armada (1588)
-Proved Spain could be defeated
-Spanish power declined
-Armada faced difficult weather
-English fleet sent fire ships at the Armada
England feared Spain's growing power
What nation was Spain's biggest rival?
Philip II proposed to Elizabeth I, but she refused
Rivalry for land in the New World
Results of Louis XIV's Reign in France:
King for 72 years!
Nickname was the "Sun King."
France gained power but what happened to the people of France?
Situation led to the French Revolution in 1789
Who is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (England)?
Result of the English Civil War:
No longer ruled by a king!
English Bill of Rights
Answer the questions on your notes.
Most of the conflicts in English history have been caused by tension between Parliament and the monarchy.
First time a monarch was executed!
Outlawed Christmas, make-up, gambling...
Ruled Spain, much of Italy, Netherlands, New World empire
Wanted to prevent spread of Protestantism
The Dutch Revolt
Dutch aristocrats resented loss of power
Citizens resented Spanish troops
Protestants rebelled against Catholic rule
(1572) Dutch sailors lead rebellion
Growing middle/upper class
wanted more influence in gov
Increased trade and industrial growth led to growing merchant class
Puritans believed Church of England was still too close to Catholicism and wanted reform
ALL groups believed the monarchy had too much power
House of Commons
House of Lords
3/4 were "gentry"-upper middle class
Wanted their voices heard more by the monarchy
Not as vocal in opposition
House of Commons used
as justification to demand more power
Justice based on prior cases and decisions, parliamentary laws, and jury opinions
NOT royal edicts or decrees
Under Louis, French monarchy gained power to:
Control armed forces
Make and execute laws
Collect and spend money
Foreign Policy (Louis XIV)
Expand French borders and assert superiority over other European states
Nations of Europe formed alliances to check French power
Balance of power
"Royal Supremacy @ Home"
Put down peasant uprisings
Suppressed free speech
Overruled efforts to block his decisions
Strengthened the economy and boosted trade
Reign hurt the people of France...
High taxes and rents
Declining population (famines)
Loss of land
Louis refused to admit that the strength of a state was increasingly dependent upon the welfare and support of the people
Who should hold more power...
Parliament or the monarchy?
Executed for being "a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy."
More power to Parliament and the people
England is a limited monarchy
A government in which a monarch agrees to share power with a parliament and abide by a constitution
(AKA "constitutional monarchy")