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Transcript of Elevator
by Kena Chavva & Emily Heo
What is an Elevator?
The First Primitive Elevator
Discipline of Engineering
1800 ~ 1820
1821 ~ 1840
1841 ~ Today
Just like any other invention, the elevator has been improved over time--the patents are an example of those innovations. The following slides discuss some of the most important changes in detail.
The Safety Brake
In 1852, Elisha Graves
Otis invented a safety
brake that used springs
to press hooks into
metal teeth on elevator
shafts if the hoisting cables failed. This was the first safe elevator system; previously, if an elevator failed, there was no way to ensure safety of its passengers. A year after the
Werner von Siemens, a German engineer, first began using electric motors for elevators in 1880. The electric motors replaced the hydraulic machines, which used fluid to power the elevator, and increased the speed of elevators.
Schuyler Wheeler introduced the idea of converting an elevator's kinetic energy to power the motor.
Microprocessors and Creation of Compass
The microprocessor controller appeared in 1979 and made elevator operators unnecessary to control the elevator. Its sensors provided data on position, direction, load, etc.
Impacts of the Elevator
Safety Comes First
The safety of the elevator improved with Joseph Giovanni's sensitive door bumper in 1994, which stopped the elevator's doors from moving after detecting an object in the opening. Today, elevator companies have installed ultrasound and infrared sensors for additional safety.
Double-deck elevators were introduced in 1932. They consisted of two elevators stacked on top of each other. This innovation allowed an elevator to carry twice as many passengers as before, enhancing the efficiency of the product.
Ament, P. (2007, March 26). Elevator History. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/elevator.htm
Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of the Elevator. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventions/a/Elevator.htm
Harris, T. (2002, February 12). How Elevators Work. Retrieved October 10, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/elevator.htm
Hurst, N. (2013, April 3). 9 Elevator Innovations That Lifted Cities and Established Empires. Retrieved October 10, 2014, from http://www.wired.com/2013/04/otis-160/
All Patents of Type: Elevators and Lifts. (2002, January 1). Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://www.datamp.org/patents/search/xrefType.php?source=xrefType&start=0&cat=160&type=0&class=3800
Elevator. (2014, April 11). Retrieved October 10, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/184491/elevator
Thanks for Watching!
We hope this presentation was informational to you.
TIMELINE OF INVENTION & EVOLUTION
The timeline is a summary of the events concerned with the development of the elevator. Some of them have already been discussed in this presentation.
CP IED Period 1
TELL ME MORE...
An elevator is a type of transport equipment that allows people/objects to move quickly and efficiently from different altitudes. Before the elevator was developed, people had to manually ascend or descend with objects, which is laboring and unproductive.
The elevator mainly falls under the discipline of mechanical engineering, which deals with the designing, building, and maintaining of motion-related tools and machines. Mechanical engineering is essential for pulleys and levers that operate the elevator.
The first elevators were ropes wrapped around an object; the object was moved using manpower or animal power.
According to the Roman architect Vitruvius, Archimedes built an elevator in 236 BC by using levers, pulleys, and a winding drum.
In 1743, King Louis XV had a "flying chair" to move to different floors of his palace. This was the first passenger elevator.
Demonstration in 1853
The most obvious impact of the elevator on society is that buildings are much taller due to elevators. Because there is a simpler way to ascend/descend than using the stairs, architects are able to expand the height of buildings. Additionally, the creation of the modern elevator was the precursor to the escalator. Escalators were placed in areas in which elevators would be impractical.
Most modern elevators run on electricity, therefore, they often have a slightly detrimental impact on the environment (depending on how the electricity is produced). Other than this, however, elevators do not damage the environment.
The Otis Elevator Company produced Compass in 2005. When a person enters their destination into the program, it finds and gives the directions to the best elevator.
innovation, Otis demonstrated the effectiveness of the mechanism by stepping into an elevator and cutting the cables. This energized sales and popularized elevators.
Feb. 20, 1801
Feb. 15, 1811
Feb. 22, 1812
Nov. 21, 1812
Jun. 20, 1816
Hydraulic machine for raising water
Elevator for the use of the sick
Improved conveyor belt, elevator, and hopper boy
Elevator for raising fluids/grains
Alternate lift for bricks and mortar
Mar 19, 1825
May 6, 1826
Aug. 31, 1827
Jan. 5, 1828
May 28, 1830
Jun. 29, 1833
Mar. 15, 1834
Elevator for pots, kettles, and vessels
Railway with lift of 16 feet
Hydrostatic and hydraulic elevator
Lifting ships of water
Raising bags for shouldering
Aug, 31, 1858
Jan 15, 1861
Feb. 27, 1883
Aug. 18, 1885
Jan. 5, 1886
Oct. 11, 1887
Jul. 4, 1905
Aug. 20, 2002
Safety elevator (safety break)
Pipe lifting elevator
Vehicle supported lift
Electrical engineering is also important for modern elevators because they run on electric motors and include sensor systems.
Landon invents a hydraulic machine for raising water
Eliot creates an elevator for the sick to use
Archimedes creates the first elevator using pulleys and levers.
King Louis XV of France has "flying chair" for the Palace of Versailles
Walgemore improves the conveyor and elevator, while Christy comes up with an elevator for fluids and grain
Dearborn creates another lift for brick and mortar
Burton and Homer, two British architects, create a steam-driven "ascending room" for tourists
Edwards creates an elevator for pots, kettles, and other objects
Corey creates a hydraulic elevator
Evans invents a mechanism to lift ships out of water
Kinman uses bags of flour and grain for shouldering
Otis creates the first safety elevator using his invention, safety break
Siemens incorporates electric motors for elevators
Wheeler includes the use of kinetic energy for his design of electric elevators
Reno patents the electric controller
Double-deck elevators first come into use
Microprocessors are implemented to control an elevator's routes and speed
Giovanni patents a sensitive door bumper for elevators
Buchmeier develops a vehicle supported lift system
Otis Elevator Company creates Compass, a program to help elevator users
Currently, steel is used to make all parts of the elevator, from the interior handrails to the mechanical parts themselves. However, a new material, called metallic glass, is becoming more popular. Metallic glass is made in the same manner as plastic, making it cheaper than steel, but it retains the strength of steel. Metallic glass is also lighter than steel; an elevator made of metallic glass would also be faster than one made of steel.
This is a photo
of metallic glass
in its raw form.
First screw drive elevator installed in Winter Palace
Miles patents an electric elevator with an improved opening and closing system
Bellis, Mary. "Alexander Miles - The Improved Elevator of Alexander Miles." About.com Inventors. About.com, 5 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Oct. 2014. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_Alexander_Miles.htm>.