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Shelly Arledge

on 23 July 2014

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Inclusion or Co-Teaching
Resources: Inclusion
Models of Co-Teaching
What is Inclusion?
A Visual for Co-Teaching
Mainstreaming/Push Inclusion
Beginning of Inclusion
Full Inclusion
Resources: Co-Teaching
Inclusion (refers to a philosphy embracing the notion that all students should be welcomed members of a learning community, that all students are part of their classrooms even if their abilities differ)


What is Co-Teaching?
Two or more educators (both certified) in a class.
Contract to share instructional responsibility.
With mutual ownership, pooled resources, and joint accountability.
The inclusive classroom means that all students have the right to feel safe, supported and included at school and in the regular classroom as much as possible. There is ongoing debate about placing students completely in the regular classroom. Views from both parents and educators can create a great deal of anxiety and passion. However, most students today are placed in agreement with both parents and educators. Often, the placement will be the regular classroom as much as possible with some cases where alternatives are selected.
What is Inclusion?
Mainstreaming /Push Inclusion
Generally, mainstreaming has been used to refer to the selective placement of special education students in one or more "regular" education classes. Proponents of mainstreaming generally assume that a student must "earn" his or her opportunity to be placed in regular classes by demonstrating an ability to "keep up" with the work assigned by the regular classroom teacher. This concept is closely linked to traditional forms of special education service delivery.
Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) and requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students). Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service delivery.
Full Inclusion
Full inclusion means that all students, regardless of handicapping condition or severity, will be in a regular classroom/program full time. All services must be taken to the child in that setting.
Roles for our Educators
The items listed to the left are to help each staff member that works with student to help define roles when developing plans for a student that will be included in a mainstream class.
Refers to students that will be included with a general education teacher and have a special education teacher that deals with just the student that is mainstreamed
Mainstreaming has many advantages:

Students are more likely to attend the school they would normally attend.
The educational setting is more authentic.
Regular and special education support provides a more individualized approach.
Greater social opportunities
Curricula is more relevant to the grade
Greater sense of belonging
The IEP is still in place in the regular classroom using the inclusional approach.
A Visual for Inclusion
Two Models of Inclusion
Two Models

There are generally two models for inclusion: push in or full inclusion.

"Push In" has the special education teacher enter the classroom to provide instruction and support to children. The push in teacher will bring materials into the classroom. The teacher may work with the child on math during the math period, or perhaps reading during the literacy block. The push in teacher also often provides instructional support to the general education teacher, perhaps helping with differentiation of instruction.

"Full Inclusion" places a special education teacher as a full partner in a classroom with a general education teacher. The general education teacher is the teacher of record, and is responsible for the child, even though the child may have an IEP. There are strategies to help children with IEPs succeed, but there are also many challenges. No doubt not all teachers are well suited to partner in full inclusion, but skills for collaboration can be learned.

Differentiation is an incredibly important tool to help children with disabilities succeed in an inclusive classroom. Differentiation involves providing a range of activities and using a variety of strategies for children with different abilities, from learning disabled to gifted, to successfully learn in the same classroom.
for Inclusion
For Co-Teaching
Models of Co-Teaching
Benefits for students include that co-teaching:
„Develops respect for differences
Creates a sense of belonging
Enables development of friendships
„Provides affirmation of individuality
„Develops empathetic skills
„Provides peer models

Benefits for teachers include that co-teaching…
Develops an appreciation for diversity
„Creates an awareness of the importance of direct individualized instruction
Enhances instructional knowledge base
Teaches collaborative problem-solving skills
„Develops teamwork skills
„Increases ways of creatively addressing challenges

Benefits for parents include that co-teaching…
„Promotes a more rigorous curriculum
„Develops an appreciation for diversity
„Positive social and academic benefits for their children
Hallahan, Kauffman, and Pullen
define co-teaching
as occurring "...between general and special educators..." wherein "...two or more professionals delivering substantive instruction to a diverse, or blended, group of students in a single physical space," (Hallahan, 2012, p. 37).

, this means that within one classroom, there is a general educator (such as an English teacher) and a special education teacher who both work together to facilitate the students' learning.

Five models of co-teaching include:
complementary teaching
station teaching
parallel teaching
alternative teaching
shared teaching ("Co-teaching models," n.d.).
Station Teaching. In this co-teaching approach, teachers divide
content and students. Each teacher then teachers the content to
one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other
group. If appropriate, a third "station" could require that students
work independently.
Lead and Support/Complementary
One teacher leads and another offers assistance and support to individuals or small groups. In this role, planning must occur by both teachers, but typically one teacher plans for the lesson content, while the other does specific planning for students' individual learning or behavioral needs.
Parallel Teaching. On occasion, student learning would be greatly
facilitated if they just had more supervision by the teacher or more
opportunity to respond. In parallel teaching, the teachers are both
teaching the same information, but they divide the class group and
do so simultaneously
Alternative Teaching

One teacher works with a small group of students to pre-teach, re-teach, supplement, or enrich instruction, while the other teacher instructs the large group. In this type of co-teaching, more planning time is needed to ensure that the logistics of pre-teaching or re-teaching can be completed; also, the teachers must have similar content knowledge for one teacher to take a group and re-teach or pre-teach.
Team Teaching

Both teachers share the planning and instruction of students in a coordinated fashion. In this type of joint planning time, equal knowledge of the content, a shared philosophy, and commitment to all students in the class are critical. Many times teams may not start with this type of format, but over time they can effectively move to this type of co-teaching, if they have continuity in working together across 2-3 years
Sample of Lesson Plan Co-Teaching
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