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Teaching Strategies for Intermediate Learners
Transcript of Teaching Strategies for Intermediate Learners
By: Hilary Kroes, Joveta Sadasivam, & Charmaine Marguerite D'Souza
Instructional Strategies for Intermediate Students
-with little initial instruction, students are presented with a real-life problem and asked to devise solutions to it
-as a group, students define plans to solve and proceed to individually investigate specific aspects of the problem, with the goal of reporting new information to the group (Hung et al, 2008)
-through questioning, research, and collaboration, students extend their pre-existing knowledge base to include specific information necessary to solve the problem (Wirkala & Kuhn, 2011)
-many solutions are often plausible; critical dialogue occurs when students decide on a preferred solution
-the teacher circulates, acting as a guide- asking and answering questions, encouraging students to stay on task, and promoting teamwork
-well structured problems and flexible scaffolding must be carefully organized in advance by the teacher
What is PBL?
Resources & References
Problem Based Learning:
Capon, N., & Kuhn, D. (2004). What’s so good about Problem-Based Learning? Cognition and Instruction, 22(1), 61-79 .
Chung, J. C. C. & Chow, S. M. K. (2004). Promoting student learning through a student-centered problem-based learning subject curriculum. Innov. Educ. Teaching Int., 41(2), 157–168.
Hung, W. (2011). Theory to reality: a few issues in implementing problem-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 529-552.
Hung, W., Jonassen, D. H., & Liu, R. (2008). Problem-based learning. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, 3, 485-506
Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. (2004). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.
Schmidt, H. G., Rotgans, J. I., &Yew, E. H. J. (2011). The process of problem-based learning: what works and why. Medical Education, 45, 792–806.
Wirkala, C. & Kuhn, D. (2011). Problem-Based Learning in K−12 Education: Is it Effective and How Does it Achieve its Effects? American Educational Research Journal, 48, 1157-1186.
Wood, D. (2008). Problem Based Learning. British Medical Journal, 336(7651), 971.
Yang, H. (2014). Teaching Music history at Hong Kong Baptist University: Problem-Based Learning and Outcome-Based Teaching and Learning. Journal of Music History Pedagogy, 4(2), 329–32.
What is it?
Problem Based Learning:
embedding learning in meaningful contexts
History & Development
-developed in the 1950s to respond to a lack of clinical problem solving skills demonstrated by medical students graduating from traditional programs (Hung et al, 2008)
-MacMaster researchers are credited with developing the initial theory into a workable program (Hung et al, 2008)
-wide-scale adoption internationally and growing use in medical schools and health science related programs since its introduction (Wood, 2008)
-interest from the K-12 education system in PBL began the 1990s (Hung et al, 2008) and it remains a popular philosophy, continually being refined and tweaked to meet the need of these younger learners
-higher task investment and motivation due to relevance of problems, leading to higher achievement (Schmidt et al, 2011)
-acquisition of knowledge specific to the problem
-enhanced activation and integration of prior knowledge with new learning, increasing conceptual coherence (Capon & Kuhn, 2004; Schmidt et al, 2011)
-promotion of active engagement (Capon & Kuhn, 2004)
-task flexibility providing opportunities of differentiation and elaboration (Schmidt et al, 2011)
-long term retention of learning (Wirkala & Kuhn, 2011)
-incorporation of social aspect in learning (if desired) which adolescents may prefer
-development of psychosocial skills (Wood, 2008)
-development of problem solving skills (Hung, 2011)
-development of autonomous work habits/self-directed learning skills (Schmidt et al, 2011; Hung, 2011)
-development of higher order thinking skills and critical thinking skills (Hung, 2011)
Application for teaching music
-make use of guiding questions
-useful in multiple strands
-possible questions for collaborative performance: How can sounds you make convey the vision of a factory/mountain hike/salmon run/thunderstorm?
-traditional research phase may become an experimental phase (students can ‘research’ how an instrument sounds, how to create a mood, etc.)
-possible questions for foundations: What would a radio broadcast in 1800 sound like? What political/economic/cultural factors affected the composition of this piece?
-difficulty incorporating new knowledge into existing schemas without more structured guidance resulting in lack of detailed instruction of basic concepts (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006)
-reliance on students’ prior knowledge (which may be inadequate) (Hung, 2011)
-complex and time consuming preparation required (Hung, 2011)
21st Century Skills
Overview of Strategy
Connection to Curriculum: Geography
Benefits of Collaborative Learning
Challenges of Collaborative Learning
- knowing the curriculum thoroughly and how to structure work periods where students stay on track and work together
- be flexible and reasonable when creating due dates for assigned work
- knowing the needs of individual students as well as the group as a whole
- being open and available to students' feedback and reassigning groups if necessary
- being open to the idea of working with other peers who have different needs and opinions
- learning how to task and delegate roles and responsibilities to each group member so everyone is contributing to the finished project
- learning how to be organized and manage time accordingly so all deadlines are met
Collaborative Learning in Drama
Collaborative learning allows students to socialize, be active learners, and take ownership and responsibility for their learning environment.
It draws on emotional intelligence and self-regulation and helps instill confidence.
Drama engages all learning styles and multiple intelligences as it draws on the skills from other subjects--logic, literacy, technology, athleticism, history, and music.
Assessment Strategies in Drama
Readers' Theatre- students are divided into groups and given a short story to narrate and put on for the class.
Text Studies- analyzing an excerpt from a script or narrative and finding literary devices (rhyme scheme, alliteration, repetition, etc.)
Storytelling- sharing a story to the class that has a distinctive beginning, middle, and end
Tableaux- students make still images of their bodies to create a scene
- PBL research that has been done on adult education programs and has produced mixed results and few reliable studies have been done on K-12 learners, so researchers are relatively divided as to whether PBL is a superior teaching approach (Wirkala & Kuhn, 2011; Hung, 2011)
-the hypotheses that acquisition, integration, and recall are improved with PBL are somewhat supported but further research is needed (Schmidt et al, 2011)
-lack of clear implications is due to methodological problems of many studies and lack of consistency of PBL between teachers (Capon & Kuhn, 2004)
-it is certain though, that students better retain and apply new learning when it is presented in an engaging manner that allows them to interact with it, and PBL can provide an opportunity to do this
-Karl Popper (1994), a proponent for PBL said “All life is problem solving.”
Integrating the use of technology into lessons provides 21 century learners with an opportunity actively be engaged with the material. Incorporating technology into teaching not only engages students but provides them with skills and knowledge of technologies.
Through the use of technology as a teaching strategy teachers are able to facilitate collaboration such as through online collaboration and engage students to think critically about a given topic. By creating an environment that is inclusive of technology we are also encouraging students to explore their worlds and to gain and find relevant information first hand.
Collaborative learning is an excellent way to structure work periods where students have the opportunity to learn from each other. Although it can be challenging to achieve in every subject, the arts--specifically drama is naturally built for a collaborative learning environment. Students must work together all the time in order to create scene studies, dialogues, and improvisation. There are many challenges for the teacher when implementing a collaborative learning environment, however similar to co-creating a learning goal and success criteria, it is important that the students take ownership of their learning and develop the skills to work with their peers.
(Chung & Chow, 2014)
Resources & References
Teaching with Technology
Resources & References
21st Century Teaching & Learning
Technology In The Classroom
Overall Goals in Geography According to the Ontario Curriculum :
"developing an understanding of the characteristics and spatial diversity of natural and human environments and communities, on a local to a global scale; "
"Analyzing the connections within and between natural and human environments and communities; developing spatial skills through the use of spatial technologies and the interpretation, analysis, and construction of various types of maps, globes, and graphs"
"Being responsible stewards of the Earth by developing an appreciation and respect for both natural and human environments and communities."
Through the use of technology such as a Smartboard teachers are able to engage their students while providing visuals of maps globes and graphs that students are then able to analyze and interpret. Students are alble to explore and compare the Earth with tools such as the internet and Google Earth.
Ministry of Education. (2013). The Ontario Curriculum Grades 9 to 10: Canadian andWorld Studies. Geography, History, Civics (Politics) Revised.
"The New Basics: Classroom Technology." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Oct. 2012. Web. 20 July 2014.
Lesson Plan Ideas:
Grade 7 Geography Resources:
Geography Videos & Lesson Ideas:
The following were also listed by Hew and Brush (2006) as disadvantages:
Teachers Attitude towards technology
Lack of time
lack of access to technology
Lack of technical support
" In the context of technology integration, teacher attitudes toward
technology may be conceptualized as teachers liking or disliking the use of
technology." (Hew and Brush 2006, 229 )
A teacher perception of technology can be a disadvantage of the strategy as it affects their wiliness to integrate it into lessons. Not having enough time can affect the usefulness of integrating technology into an activity. This can be connected with access to technology. There may not be enough resources available. Lastly there is a learning curve as every students may not have the same understanding of certain technology.
Hew, Khe Foon, and Thomas Brush. "Integrating Technology into K-12 Teaching and Learning: Current Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for Future Research." Educational Technology Research and Development 55.3 (2007): 223-52. 5 Dec. 2006. Web. 22 July 2014.
“Technology is also seen as being able to provide a number of opportunities that would otherwise be difficult to attain.” (Hew and Brush 224)
Through the use of technology teachers are able to integrate interactive materials that would other wise not be possible. For instance as suggested by Hew and Brush (2006) technology allows students to communicate and to “motivate” students. Using technology engages students attention and as a result can help them to connect with the course material.
Allows for collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, and can engage students with the course material
Integrating the use of technology into lessons and the learning process. Using technology as a way to engage students, as well providing students the opportunity to interact and be critical thinkers through the use of technology
Such tools include:
Smartboard technology, Prezi, Ipads, computers, internet, social media sites such as twitter, powerpoint, interactive graphics, etc.
Flexible Grouping: students learn how to work with their classmates who have different skills and exceptionalities
Interpersonal Development: students learn to relate to their peers and the opinions expressed by others
Acknowledgment of differences: although the opinions shared by others may not be the same, students will learn how to be constructive
Opportunities for Feedback: Students receive both peer and teacher feedback
Collaborative Learning focuses on the student learning and applying the curriculum through instructional periods that involve working with classmates.
It shares the same values of Vygotsky’s “Constructivist Theory” which states that independent learning is enhanced through group work. Vygotsky (1978) stated:
What a child can do in a group today, tomorrow he can do alone.
Collaborative Learning in Drama
Ashton-Hay, Sally. (2005) Drama: Engaging All Learning Styles. pg 1-19
Collaborative Learning, An Innovative Educational Approach. (2014).
Concept to Classroom. Workshop: Collaborative and Cooperative Learning. (2004).
Drama Resource, What are Drama Strategies? (2014).
Teaching and Educational Development Institute, The University of Queensland. (2014).
The Journey to Excellence, What is Collaborative Learning? (2014). http://www.journeytoexcellence.org.uk/resourcesandcpd/research/summaries/rscollaborativelearning.asp
The Southeast Center for Arts Integration, Creating a Cooperative Classroom for Integrated Learning Through Drama. (2014).