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Teen Dating Violence

Howard University School of Social Work- Teen Dating Violence Presentation. Course: Contemporary Issues of Domestic Violence.
by

Karen Tuttle

on 18 April 2011

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Transcript of Teen Dating Violence

TEEN 40% of teen drinkers say
they drink when they are upset 31% say they drink when they are alone 25% of teens say they drink when bored 25% say they drink to get "high" Nationally, one-quarter of 15 year old females and less than
30% of 15 year old males have had sex compared with 66%
of 18 year old females, and 68% of 18 year old males who have had sexxual intercourse Dating Violence Background and Signifigance Prevelence Determining prevelence is difficult due to underreporting, however, here is what current research tells us: 1 in 4 adolescents reports verbal, physical, emotional or sexual abuse each year.

72% of 8th and 9th graders reportedly “date”.

About 10% of students nationwide report being physically hurt by a boyfriend or girlfriend in the past 12 months.

According the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) the 1999 per capita rate of intimate partner violence against women was 6 victimizations per 1,000, per females age 16-24 it was 16 victimizations per 1,000 (Rennison, C., 2001).

Homicide committed by intimate partners is the leading cause of death for black women between the ages of 15 and 24 (National Center for Health Statistics, 1997) Dating violence is defined as physical, sexual or psychological violence within a dating relationship. Physical abuse often takes the form of intentionally hitting, punching or throwing an object at ones partner.

Psychological abuse, may involve insulting, degrading or criticizing one’s partner, threatening to break up while making a partner feel guilty or inferior and saying things that upset or hurt one’s partner.

Sexual abuse within a violent dating relationship is characterized by deliberate intimidation or coercion by one partner against the other to compel participation in sexual intercourse or other sexual acts or to compel the partner in sexual activities at a rate that is greater than desired. Teen dating violence affects people from all socioeconomic groups as well as race.

Within all races this issue is underreported, especially in the African American community. African Americans are disproportionately represented among victims of intimate partner violence, particularly in the adolescent population.

Recent studies indicate that African Americans experience higher rates of intimate partner violence compared to Whites. African Americans
& Dating Violence Literature Review Problem/Statement of Need

•The majority of research on dating violence has focused on college students, a population that is not very representative of high school students and younger adolescents (James, West, Deters & Armijo, 2000). Mutual Aggression

Although domestic violence in adults is most often a male against female crime, research suggests that girls and boys are both victims and perpetrators of dating violence, with 8.8% of girls and 11% of boys reporting a violent occurrence (CDC, 2008). Despite the reciprocal aspect of teen dating violence, the nature of the violence is very different. Prior Experiences/Exposure to Violence

• An important component examined repeatedly in the literature on teen dating violence is exposure to models of aggression in intimate relationships (O’Keefe, 2005).

• Exposure to community violence has also been associated with perpetration of dating violence for both genders (Malik, )

• There has been consistent support in the literature for a positive association between dating violence and aggression against peers (Riggs & O’Leary, 1989).
Attitudes Regarding Violence/Peer Influence

• One of the most consistent and strongest factors associated with inflicting violence against a dating partner is the belief that it is acceptable to use violence (Malik et al., 1997; O’Keefe, 1997; Tontodonato & Crew,1992).

• Peer influence and attitudes about violence is also a precursor to dating violence.

• One study noted that teens were likely to emulate the violent behaviors of friends and parents, but that aggressiveness among friends was more powerful than parental behavior, reinforcing the potent role peers play in role modeling and youth behavior (Arriaga & Foshee, 2004). Acceptance of violence among friends may be a strong predictor of personal participation in violence (Arriaga & Foshee, 2004). Impact of Teen Dating Behaviors

• The impact of teen dating violence for both the perpetrator and the survivor are manifold.

Physical injury and even death

Approximately 8% of teens report visiting an emergency department to seek out care from injuries sustained in dating relationships (Foshee, 1998).

When sexual abuse is a factor, there is oftentimes a high propensity to be associated with unprotected sexual activity and high-risk sexual behavior (O’Keefe, 2005).

Additionally, poor self-esteem and environmental influences may lead to poor nutrition and lack of attention to safety measures. Additional Impacts

• Substance Abuse
• Suicidal Ideations
• Poor relationship skills
• Mental health issues: guilt, loss of trust, social withdrawal, post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression The high prevalence rates found in studies across the country support the need for effective dating violence and relationship skill building prevention efforts early in schools. The Safe Dates Project The Safe Dates Project involves 10 classroom sessions designed to shift adolescent gender based expectations and behavior and is one of very few school-based programs that have shown reductions in PDV longitudinally.

The objective was to determine whether an interactive curriculum that integrates dating violence prevention with lessons on healthy relationships, sexual health, and substance use reduces physical dating violence (PDV).

The research sought to expand the efforts by integrating (21)twenty-one lessons into the grade (9)nine curriculum to be taught by classroom teachers that meet the curriculum requirements, provide academic credit for participants, and provide a more sustainable and less expensive strategy compared with programs delivered by non-teachers.

• Strongest Precursor Teen/Adolescent dating violence is one of the strongest precursors to intimate partner violence in adulthood and is associated with injuries and health-compromising behaviors, such as unsafe sex, abuse use, and suicide attempts. Teen Culture Systems Theory Human Behavior Perspective Social Norms Peer Groups economic inequalities
gender roles
oppressive images aggression Implications policy practice research Contributors Dating violence was addressed in the context of overlapping areas of risk behaviors (sexual activity, substance use, and peer violence) by the emphasis on core relationship issues and pressures in early adolescence and by teaching the necessary skills to promote safer decision making with peers and dating partners.

The program was timed to capitalize on the natural interest and motivation of youths to learn about lifestyle issues, a factor deemed essential in health promotion efforts with youths. A cluster design was used because randomization by school was most feasible and it reduced contamination between the intervention and control groups.

The primary outcome at 2.5 years was self-reported PDV during the previous year.

Secondary outcomes were physical peer violence, substance use, and condom use. Key Factors Age of population
Resistance to address sexual behavior with adolescents

Definition
Inhibits future research
Risk-reduction rather than prevention

Social beliefs
Familial, community, socially held beliefs about violence in relationships Models utilized Social-ecological
Gradual broadening of influential factors/people
Cognitive behavioral
Pre-empting behaviors
Myths
Gender stereotypes
Empowerment
Education
Supportive counseling
Feminist
Importance of education leading to increased action Educational Groups Peer led
Similarly aged facilitator(s)
Diverse facilitators
Informal in nature
Perceived ease of communication
Second-hand information
Difficulty progressing to policy level intervention Adult moderated
Need for diversity
Perceived formality
Engagement and rapport
Greater visibility
Potential research
Direct information Major themes for future research Demographic characteristics
Age, race, SES, family structure
Exposure/experience with violence
Interpersonal
Community
Existing attitudes
Mutual aggression
Gender roles
Acceptability of violence Peer influence
Sex norms
Dispelling myths
When friends are abuse/intervening
Interpersonal variables
Future assaults
Mental health
Pregnancy; STI
At-risk behaviors
Multiple partners
Substance use
CJ involvement
CPS involvement
Prior experiences of violence Focus groups at CDC 12 groups

11-14 (6th,7th or 8th grade graduates)
Sex segregated
Moderator sex segregated

Topics included
Healthy and unhealthy relationships
Norms in dating
Abuse in dating
Intervening
Trusted sources of information/assistance
Amy Johnson
Senemeht Olatunji
Karen Tuttle
Tamika Williams
Lavar Youmans
Full transcript