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Enseñanza del Inglés para Adultos

Mark Cruz LEI 3 0323878
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Mark Cruz

on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of Enseñanza del Inglés para Adultos

Teaching Methodologies Language education was once a matter of rote memorization and repetition -- a dull and uninspiring process for students. The 20th century, however, witnessed an explosion of new methodologies that focused on more creative, engaging approaches. By informing themselves of these techniques, teachers of English as a second language, or ESL, can select the most effective approach for their students. How to be a good teacher You need three things:
1.Knowledge
2.Empathy
3.Methodology
4.Vocation Enseñanza de Inglés para Adultos Mark Cruz Rodríguez
LEI 3
0323878 Lesson Planning A lesson plan is simply a step-by-step guide to what an EFL teacher plans to do in the classroom on a given day. The more detailed the steps are, the better.

A teacher could not go to work on a given day and another teacher could read his / her lesson plan and know exactly how to teach the class on that day.

A good lesson plan might even include specific gestures and cues used for various parts of the lesson. That’s how detailed a plan should be. How to be a good language learner Motivation Teachers have a lot to do with their students' motivational level. A student may arrive in class with a certain degree of motivation but the teacher's behavior and teaching style, the structure of the course, the nature of the assignments and informal interactions with students all have a large effect on student motivation. The Direct Method Summary: It became popular since the Grammar- Translation Method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively.
Methodology: Meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids, with no recourse to the students' native language.
Objective: The purpose of language is communication (therefore students need to learn how to ask questions as well as answer them).
Key features: Students speak in the target language a great deal and communicate as if they were in real situations.
Techniques: The teacher presents certain topic that s related to some everyday situation. He explains the topic and even dictates some information. Then he asks and answers students’ questions and then students practice making and answering questions among them.
Comment: I think this method is very practical to become a communicative person. Students are asked to use the language, not to demonstrate their knowledge about the language. The Audiolingual Method Summary: A method developed in the 1050s in american universities also known as audiolingualism to attain conversational proficiency.
Methodology: The language was taught by systematic attention to pronunciation and by intensive oral drilling of its basic sentence patterns. Pattern practice was a basic classroom technique.
Objectives: The course is divided into short term objectives and long term objectives. Short term are first, control of the structures of sound, form and order in the new language; second, acquaintance with vocabulary items that bring content into these structures; and third, meaning, in terms of the significance these verbal symbols have for those who speak the language natively" Long-range objectives "must be language as the native speaker uses it"
Key features: A student textbook is often not used in the elementary phases of course where students are primarily listening, repeating, and responding. Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment often have central roles. A language laboratory may also be considered essential
Techniques: Dialogues and drills form the basis of audiolingual classroom practices. Dialogues provide the means of contextualizing key structures and illustrate situations in which structures might be used as well as some cultural aspects of the target language.
Comment: This method is useful for situational communication . Students are guided so that their pronunciation, intonation and inflection is the correct one. Then, they are required to write and read texts following a pattern. PPP: Present, Practice and Produce Summary: Based on the principles of Communicative Language teaching from the 1980s and other initiatives from the 1970s. Also based on the KISS approach :)
Methodology: The teacher presents a topic in a very simple way. Gives examples and then works with the students on some exercises together.
Objectives: Students are not presented to English in a hard way and so they can feel more encouraged to receive the information and this will lead to a better production.
Key Features: The teacher must think of the easiest way to present the topics to be seen in class. The Silent Way Summary: Learning is easier when the students create rather than just memorize. It is also easier if they use physical objects and solve problems.
Methodology: Students learn sounds, the building blocks of language using a color chart. Classes tipically involve one structure at a time. With minimal spoken cues, students are able to produce the structure
Objectives: Be able to express their feelings and perception of the world. Have a pronunciation a native would find intelligible
Key Features: The teacher starts with what the students know and builds from one structure to the next. Structures are continually recycled. The syllabus is developed according to learning needs.
Techniques: Modeling pronunciation for some new words, help students pronounce these words correctly and then help them make their own utterances according to the situation created by the teacher to make them communicate.
Comment: This method is apt for students whose affective filter is high, usually adults in their middle thirties and up. Student errors are seen as natural, indispensable part of the learning process. Errors are inevitable since ss are encouraged to explore the language. Suggestopedia Summary: Developed by Bulgarian psychiatrist-educator Georgi Lozanov. Derived from Suggestology, where nonrational and nonconscious influences are used to optimize learning. Decoration, music, classroom arrangement. Memorizing by this method is sometimes up to 25 times faster than by conventional learning. Music plays a major role in the learning process.
Methodology: ”. It is believed that students will learn best if their attention is focused not on the language forms but on using the language.
There are six components through which desuggestion and suggestion operate:
1. authority. People learn better from authoritative sources.
2. infantilization. To establish a parent-child-like relationship, giving the learner the receptivity of the child
3. double-plannedness. The environment of the class.
4. intonation, rhythm and pseudo-passiveness. Varying the voice tone and dramatizing to give meaning to the linguistic material and using music to relax.
Objectives: To deliver advanced conversational proficiency quickly paying attention to the use of the language, rather than its forms.
Key Features: The student works in a pseudo-passive state in which the material rolls over and through them. SS are encouraged to embrace their own infantilization, but also are encouraged to gain confidence with the activities presented.
Techniques: Lists of vocabulary and grammatical commentary. A textbook with emotional force, quality and interesting characters. Also, indirect support materials such as music and classroom fixtures.
Comment: This methos is good for people who are not in a rush to learn and who want to enjoy the process; also in private classes. Students are graded during their in-class performance and not through formal tests. Communicative Language Teaching Summary: In the 70’s, educators noted that being able to communicate required more than linguistic competence. It was then, when there was this shift from learning English to using it, to using English to learn it. Developed to contrast Chomsky’s theory of language.
Methodology: Activities that carry out real communication promote learning. They need to know that many different forms can be used to perform a function and also that several forms can be used for the same function, depending on the context and the interlocutors.
Objectives: Enable students to communicate in the target language. Language teaching will reflect the particular needs of the target learners.
Key Features: Students are communicators. They must be able to communicate even if their knowledge of the target language is incomplete. Students are responsible for their own learning. Their cooperative approach helps learner see that a faulty communication is not only the speaker’s nor the listener’s responsibility, but both’s.
Techniques: students use the language through communicative activities such as games, role-plays and problem-solving tasks.
Comments: The teacher evaluates not only the student’s accuracy, but also their fluency. The student who has the most control over structures and vocabulary is not always the best communicator. The Natural Approach Summary: In contrast to the Direct Method, It places less emphasis on teacher’s monologues, direct repetition and formal questions and answers. There is an emphasis on exposure or input rather than practice, optimizing emotional preparedness for learning
Methodology: Communication is the primary function of language. It seems there is no theory at all, but the primacy of meaning is emphasized. Vocabulary importance is stressed. Language is a vehicle for communicating messages. Acquisition only happens when people understand messages in the target language. Nevertheless, they see language learning as mastery of structures by stages. Grammatical structures should not need explicit analysis or attention by the teacher, learner or materials
Objectives: It is designed for beginners to become intermediates. They will be able to make themselves understood leaving aside linguistic accuracy and details of grammar.
Key Features: Approached from two points of view: Basic personal Communication skills: (oral and written) and Academic learning skills (oral and written). At the end of the course, ss are not expected to learn structures but able to deal with language in certain situations.
Techniques: Learners should not try to learn. The more involved in the activities in the classroom, the more fluency and learning they will get.
Comment: I like this method for students who find English threatening because of its grammar. Since the course is student-centered designed and every student will start producing when they feel ready, their progress cannot be evaluated. Student's Motivation Ideally, all learners exhibit an inborn curiosity to explore the world, so they are likely to find the learning experience per se intrinsically pleasant.
In reality, however, this "curiosity" is vitiated by factors as compulsory school attendance, curriculum content, and grades.

•Intrinsic. It is the desire to learn for self-fulfillment, enjoyment and to achieve a mastery of the subject.
•Extrinsic. It is the motivation to perform and succeed for the sake of accomplishing a specific result or outcome.
Students who are very grade-oriented tend to be extrinsic motivated students Teacher's Motivation Effective teachers will make sure that students know WHY they need to learn the language that is the target of the day’s lesson. Enhancing Student's Motivation

Students’ motivation can be enhanced under the following conditions:
• Appropriate teacher behavior and good teacher-student rapport
• a pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere
• a cohesive learner group characterized by appropriate group norms Instrumental Motivation

This is generally characterized by the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language.
the purpose of language acquisition is more utilitarian, such as meeting the requirements for school or university graduation, applying for a job, requesting higher pay based on language ability, reading technical material, translation work or achieving higher social status.

Instrumental motivation is often characteristic of second language acquisition, where little or no social integration of the learner into a community using the target language takes place, or in some instances is even desired. Integrative Motivation

It is thought that students who are most successful when learning a target language are those who like the people that speak the language, admire the culture and have a desire to become familiar with or even integrate into the society in which the language is used.
Also, integrative motivation typically underlies successful acquisition of a wide range of registers and a native-like pronunciation

Integrative motivation has been found to sustain long-term success when learning a second language. Some micro skills
Producing writing at an efficient rate of speed
Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order patterns
Use acceptable grammatical systems
Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms
Use cohesive devices in written discourse

Teaching tip:
Explain and use the process of writing. Ask for students to do revising, editing and feedback each other. Writing Micro skills should not be taught in excess. Micro skills are just a means of improving macro-skills. Can be categorized into:
Micro skills: recognizing and interpreting the linguistic features of the text.
Referents
Word meaning
Discourse indicators
Linking words
Macro skills: Understanding the ideas in a text. Reading Language Skills and Sub-skills Activities to enhance it:
Dictation exercises
Guided dialogs
Role plays
Encourage class participation by asking students how the real-life activity you are teaching is conducted in their country. Where would they by their groceries? How would they visit a doctor? Speaking: Main contributors: Stephen Krashen, Gillian Brown and Georges Yule some speaking sub-skills:

Fluency
Phonological clarity
Being able to produce chunks of language
Appropriacy (register)
Understanding elliptical forms
Use of cohesive devices Speaking Main contributors: John Flowerdew and Lindsay Miller Teaching tip:

When to focus either on Top-down or Bottom up sub-skills?

Focus on Bottom up when working with transactional discourse (when language is just a tool that serves in the expression of content)

Focus on Top Down when working with interactional discourse (when expressing social relations and personal attitudes) Listening
Some bottom up sub-skills:
Discriminating between emotions
Getting the gist
Recognizing the topic
Using discourse structure to enhance listening strategies
Identifying the speaker
Finding the main idea
Finding supporting details
Making inferences It can be divided into:

Bottom up sub-skills
Top down sub-skills

Bottom up is what the page brings to the learner and top down is what the learner brings to the page.
Some bottom up sub-skills:
Discriminating between phonemes
Hearing morphological endings
Selecting details
Recognizing fast speech forms
Finding stressed syllables
Recognizing reduced forms
Recognizing words as they link together in connected streams
Recognizing prominent details Listening When learning English, it is important to learn skills that help to do everyday life tasks.

The language skills of speaking, listening, writing and reading are often divided into sub-skills. What is that? Main contributors: Gillian Brown and Georges Yule Teaching tips:

Choose a variety of texts.
Model how to predict what students are about to read every time they approach a text
Show them judge what the text may be from the title of the article.
Use flash cards or an overhead projector to teach students high frequency words and word recognition
Make the text personal. Some macro skills are:

Skimming. To get the most important information. Newspapers, brochures
Scanning. To find a particular piece of information. Schedules, meeting plans
Extensive reading. to obtain a general understanding of a subject and includes reading longer texts for pleasure
Intensive reading. Used in short texts to extract specific information. Here, it is necessary to understand each word. A bookkeeping report, an insurance claim, a contract. Reading Language Systems
Basic understanding of English language systems is imperative to work in the ESL/EFL classroom with confidence.
We can break up the Language system into three subsystems:

The lexical subsystem containing thousands of words, whose function is to reflect the entire range of things and phenomena in the ambient world.
The grammatical subsystem, whose function is to arrange words into sentences reflecting thoughts exchanged in speech communication
The phonic subsystem whose function is to provide the items and products of the two other subsystems with sounds and shapes Reflective Learning When we are children and start going to school, we are taught how to read and write. Once we can manage to do this, we all think the next step is just keep on reading and writing to learn. We move from learning to read, to reading to learn. However, we are almost never told that knowing how to read is not enough. It is necessary to also learning how to read. When learners are not taught how to successfully learn, they tend to take the known-by-everybody road and memorize all the information taught.

The problem is that memorizing information does not make critical thinkers. Learners who memorize become cup-students, pot-students; who just transfer the knowledge from books to their heads, without even questioning whether it is true or even useful. When learners are given the conditions to stop memorizing and reflect over what they are being explained, a virtuous cycle starts.

Learners experience, rather than copy from boards; and these experiences are what makes them reflect on what it is that they are learning.

Once they have done so, they are able to form new concepts and either complement or substitute previous information, and this becomes a new step to scaffold information for the next experiences to learn from. Classroom Management and Experiential Learning Kolb classifies students into convergent and divergent.

Kolb’s experiential learning is well focused in terms of how adults learn.

With children, the teacher is a role model who sets the example and who, in some cases is a person to look up to. With adults, however, the teacher is just a guide who will help them develop a specific skill they know they need.

I think one student can be convergent sometimes and divergent other times. These types of classifications change depending on the activities to do, the students’ mood that day, the relevance of the topic to their lives, etc.

What does not change though, despite whatever main reason they have, is the fact that they want to learn English, and that’s the main goal the teacher must consider every time they do any activity. That must be the compass to choose how to teach some topic or how to carry out some activity. Experiential Learning David A. Kolb, with co-creator Roger Fry, developed a cyclical model consisting of four learning modes to include concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation.

It designates learners into one of four learning styles: accommodative, assimilative, divergent and convergent thinkers. This cycle pertains to those in higher education as instructors and facilitators both on campus and in distance-learning settings as well as others involved in adult education. Teaching Approaches
The aim of English Language Teaching methodology is simple: it wants to educate teacher-participants /teachers about ELT, not train them in it.

All informed thinking is against lock-step training of teachers.

A teacher / teacher-to-be is a thinking human being, and his/her full potential can be reached only if s/he is encouraged to think and develop as an individual and a professional. Teaching Vocabulary Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings. As Steven Stahl puts it, "Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world."

Vocabulary knowledge is not something that can ever be fully mastered; it is something that expands and deepens over the course of a lifetime. Instruction in vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence.

Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word-learning strategies. Some strategies to teach Vocabulary:

1. Context
2. Dictionary
3. Synonyms/Antonyms
4. Clines
5.Realia
6. Mime
7.Pictures or Drawing
8 Word Formation
9.Explanation
10. Semantic mapping Thank you Lesson Planning Teaching Approaches
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