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The Propaganda Model
Transcript of The Propaganda Model
Erin Croft, Kathryn Daley, Abbie Germain,
Keith Norman, Lauren Snow
Introduction to the Propaganda Model
The 5 Filters
Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media
The information flows through these five filters, both individually and together, often resulting in the influence of media choices.
2. Funding Sources
5. Anti-Communism and Fear Ideology
Anti-Communism and Fear Ideology
The profit-seeking leading media corporations can be biased. The dominant media organizations are in hands of select group of elites. For that reason the major news channels, newspaper and other types of mass media, are all aspect of large corporations and conglomerations. Therefore all information presented to the public will be varying as per the agenda of these organizations.
Ex: Universal studios being owned by NBC universal
Advertisements play a crucial role in funding the mass media. The media alters the news to benefit their advertisers which often results in a modification of the truth. There is intense competition throughout the industry to attract advertisers, which leads to corporations being forced to please their advertisers.
Ex: McDonalds has a wide variety of choices when it comes to where they advertise. If McDonalds chooses to advertise on FOX news FOX will be inclined to report only positive aspects of McDonalds news to ensure financial security.
Propaganda has been used by the Ancient Greeks, Alexander the
Great, Julius Caesar, Napoleon and many other historical figures and ancient civilizations.
Looking back at War Propaganda we can see its influence in Nazi Germany during WWII and China during the Cultural Revolution.
(1939-1945) Nazi Germany: Spread & Preserve Nazism and make Jews the enemy
Joseph Goebbels, chief of Nazi propaganda used every medium available to share pro-Nazi propaganda and had tight control of National press.
Especially the radio (Flaks) most German families had at least one radio and they were designed to not be able to receive anti-Nazi broadcasts from Great Britain and anywhere else.
Propaganda usage was successful as Hitler was perceived as a national hero.
Even the largest media organizations can not afford to have reporters and camera persons where ever the news breaks, they focus their resources where news is expected to occur. Elites and celebrities have the ability to frequently fill the medias need for continuous and cheap news content. For more official news broadcasting business leaders, politicians and the government are commonly viewed as reliable sources of information. Thus the media become hesitant to run news that will deter sources that provide them with crucial information.
In simple terms is a means of disciplining the media. Described by Herman and Chomsky as "negative responses to a media statement program". Flaks can be in the form of letters, phone calls, lawsuits and more. If flaks are produced on a large scale it can be both damaging and costly to the media. As a filter it will try to avoid the news items that are probable to construct negative responses.
Was the fifth and final news filter developed; this filter assembles the population against a common enemy. But now Herman and Chomsky argue "anti-communism has been replaced by the "war of terror" as the major social control mechanism.
Ex: Radio stations filtering their feedback/incoming messages.
Ex: News outlets depend on information from politicians so they don't want to anger a particular person or party.
Ex: Anti-Communism propaganda was used in the past to sway people against the movement.
The War on Terror is currently using propaganda to gain support for the wars in the middle east. (It also heavily relies on government sourcing.)
Little information from inside North Korea
Information from tourists from outside countries have differing opinions
Tourists are influenced by propaganda from inside and outside the country
: information and ideas that are spread widely and used to promote a political cause or point of view. It is aimed to influence the attitude and sway the opinion of a population.
Advanced by Edward S. Herman & Noam Chomsky.
Both explain how propaganda and biases function in mass media.
Model explains that different populations are influenced and manipulated through propaganda.
Theory states that news is being molded to benefit those involved, rather than broadcasting truthful news.
News is constructed through advertising and government sourcing intended to create high interest that targets specific groups of people.
Herman & Chomsky explain factors that misshape news as filters. The theory is broken down into five filters.
Propaganda can be seen through five filters aimed to influence individual's choices.
American linguist philosopher, cognitive scientist, social justice activist...
"Father of Modern Linguistics"
Spent most of his career at MIT
Authored over 100 books
Voted in 2005 "world's top public intellectual"
Known for his role in the development of the Propaganda model with Edward S. Herman
Edward S. Herman
Media analyst who specialized in corporate, regulatory issues and political economy.
Taught at The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania.
Partnered with Noam Chomsky to develop the Propaganda model.
Both theorists published arguably their best work in 1988 "Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy and mass media."
The book describes in detail the development and function of the Propaganda model.
McDonalds has been running a transparency campaign, answering people's questions about their products
They are relying on people not to think too deeply or to research what they are saying
A quick search reveals that ADA is a carcinogen despite their attempts to make it sound fine
Nonfiction book published in 1988, co-written by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky.
Discusses mass media in the United States.
They defend social, economic and political agendas of privileged groups of people that dominate and overtake domestic society.
When producing stories journalist must take an approach to assure that there will not be criticisms of bias.
The Propaganda Model assumes that interests are unified and doesn't account for different opinions or beliefs
This model does not consider the media consumers ability to decode information from fact and fiction.
Unlike the gate-keeper theory, journalists are told to discuss, criticize, and form opinions if they remain true to the system of assumptions and principles that form an elite agreement.
Propaganda is used to impose information and ideas to a large and inactive audience. The Propaganda Model analyses and understands how propaganda is used in mass media. It can be seen through the five filters: Ownership, Funding Sources, Sourcing, Flak, and Anti-Communism or Fear Ideology.
Although it is typically known for its use in the past, propaganda is still very prevalent today.
Despite that this model does have its flaws and criticisms it cannot be dismissed as ineffective.
The Cultural Revolution Campaigns (1966-1976) aimed to get rid of China's old culture and bring forth new culture, new ideas etc.
Campaigns happened so quickly that propaganda posters were the main source of information for people.
China was in chaos and these posters that had bright colors and simple designs indicated what behavior was acceptable by the slogans written on them.
They were seen as more dependable than the media.
The dictator Mao Zhe Dong was portrayed as a God and like Hitler, quickly rose to power and successfully swayed the opinion of the public in China at the time.