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Effective Instruction for Elementary Struggling Readers Research-Based Practices

(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
by

Jannette Reyes

on 4 May 2016

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Transcript of Effective Instruction for Elementary Struggling Readers Research-Based Practices

Section 2
Section 5:
Section 4:
Research-Based Practices
Topics for the Institute
Effective Instruction for Elementary Struggling Readers Institute
(c)2003 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Copyright Statement
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
(c) 2003 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency
These materials are copyrighted (c) by and are the property of The University of Texas System and the Texas Education agency and may not be reproduced or distributed without their written permission, except by Texas public school educators under the following conditions:
1. any portion reproduced or distributed will be used exclusively for nonprofit educational purposes in Texas;
2. no monetary charge is made for the reproduced materials, any document containing them, or any activity at which they are distributed; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost or reproduction and distribution may be charged;
3. no modifications or changes can be made to the materials by anyone without the express written permission of The University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency.
To obtain a license to reprint large quantities, or to use the material in a manner not specified above, contactlicensing@texasreading.org.
Students
Curriculum
Instruction
Effective Instruction for Elementary
Struggling Readers:
Research-Based Practices
Introduction-2
Bilingualism and Language Diversity
Bilingualism and Bilingual Education
TEKS
Settings for English Language Learners' Literacy Instruction
Second Language Development
Guidelines for English Language Learners' Instruction
Identification of Dyslexia
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Introduction-4
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Introduction-5
Definition
Characteristics
Early
Identification
Procedures
Instructional
Information
Critical Features of Effective Reading Instruction
assessing progress;
delivering systematic, explicit instruction;
providing multiple opportunities for practice;
scaffolding instruction;
grouping for instruction; and
selecting appropriate text
The Critical Features Include:
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Introduction-6
Teacher
Independent
Type of Support
Amount of Support
Skills and Concepts
Introduction
Mastery
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Introduction-7
Scaffolding
Instruction
Grouping for Instruction
Small Group Instruction
- is an effective way to provide explicit
instruction and practices for
struggling students
Small Group Instruction
Grouping Formats
Grouping Formats
- include same-ability groups and
student pairings/peer tutoring,
which are effective formats for
teaching reading to struggling
readers
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Introduction 8
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Introduction -8
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Introduction-8
Flexible Grouping
- provides opportunities for students to
be members of more than one group
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Introduction-8
Flexible Grouping
Planning for and Managing
Groups
Planning for and Managing Groups
- requires examining assessment data
to group students and determining how
groups will function
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Introduction-8
Instructional Adaptations

Characteristics of
Appropriate Adaptations
Individualized
Relevant
Effective
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Introduction-9
Sample Classroom of Ms.Chang's
Kindergartners
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Introduction-10
Introduction-11
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
IC
IA
DI
M/AT
Categories of Adaptations
and Legend
Introduction-12
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Sample Classroom
Depicting Adaptations
Initial Activity
Initial Activity
(adapted)
New Activity
(2nd adaptation)
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Introduction-13
Adaptations Framework
Determine setting-
specific demands
Propose
appropriate
adaptations
Identify student-specific
characteristics
Evaluate
adaptations
Introduction-14
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Adaptations Continuum
Less
More
Intensive
Less
More
Pervasive
Introduction-15
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Sample Adaptations Continuum in
Ms. Chang's Classroom
Alphabet Arc
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Alphabet Arc
(adapted)
"ABC" Alphabet Search
(2nd adaptation)
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Introduction-16
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will recognize the names
of letters and sequence
them correctly.
Alphabet Arc
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Alphabet Arc
(adapted)
"ABC"
Alphabet
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Introduction-17
Instructional Plan
Categories of Adaptations
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Introduction-18
TEKS
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Phonological Awareness-1
Definition and Description of
Phonological Awareness

Phonological Awareness is the ability to recognize the sounds of
spoken language and how they can be
segmented
(pulled apart),
blended
(put together), and
manipulated
(added, deleted, and
substituted).
Definition
Description
Phonological Awareness:
is a strong predictor of later reading success
is an important component of beginning reading instruction for all students
can be taught and integrated throughout the school day
focuses on sounds in spoken language, and
is not the same as phonics
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Phonological Awareness-2
TEKS
K.2
1.2
Types of Phonological Awareness
Phoneme Blending,
Segmentation, and
Manipulation
Blending phonemes into words, segmenting words into individual
phonemes, and manipulating phonemes into spoken words
Onset-Rime Blending and
Segmentation
Blending/segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) with /from the vowel and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime)
Syllable Blending
and Segmentation
Blending syllables to say words or segmenting spoken words into syllables
Sentence Segmentation
Segmenting sentences into spoken words
Rhyme/
Alliteration
Matching the end sounds of words
Producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Phonological Awareness-3
Onset-Rime and Phonemic Awareness
Onset-Rime
Phonemic
Awareness
Blending onsets and rimes into words
Segmenting words into onsets and rimes
Blending phonemes into words
Segmenting words into phonemes
Manipulating phonemes into words
/sh/ /irt/ blends to shirt
shirt segments to /sh/ /irt/
/m/ /a/ /n/ blends to man
bat segments to /b/ /a/ /t/
add /s/ to the end of tap to get taps
delete /h/ from ham to get am
substitute /r/ for /b/ in bag to get rag
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Phonological Awareness-4
Phonological Awareness Activity Cards
Onset-Rime
Blending &
Segmentation
Phoneme Blending,
Segmentation, &
Manipulation
Rhyme &
Alliteration
Sentence
Segmentation
Syllable Blending
& Segmentation
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Phonological Awareness-5
Guidelines for Teaching
Phonological Awareness
Use the critical features of effective instruction
Assess each student individually
Consider the characteristics of the activities
Include a range of different types of activities
Use manipulatives during instruction
Add letter-sound correspondence instruction
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Phonological Awareness-6
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will segement words
into phonemes.
Say It and
Move It
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Say It and Move It
(adapted)
Finger
Phonemes
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Phonological Awareness-7
Instructional Plan
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Phonological Awareness-8
TEKS
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Phonological
Awareness

Word Study
and Spelling

Section 1
Introduction
Word Study and Spelling
Words Study and Spelling-2
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Decoding
Structural Analysis
Multisyllabic Word Recognition
Irregular Word Recognition
Automatic Word Identification
Fluent Reading With Understanding
Definition and Components
of Decoding
Definition
Components
Decoding is the process of identifying unknown words by using
knowledge of letter-sound correspondence
Decoding includes:
letter-sound correspondence (e.g., <
m
> says /m/),
letter combinations (e.g., <
ch
> represents /ch/ in chair), and
blending initial letter-sounds with common spelling patterns to read words (e.g., /s/ /at/).
TEKS
K.1
K.2
K.3
1.2
1.3
2.2
3.1
Word Study and Spelling-3
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Guidelines for Teaching
Decoding
Use the critical features of effective instruction
Establish a systematic, logical order of introducing letter-sound corresepondences
Progress from blending letter-sounds to reading words and connected text
Integrate spelling instruction to support letter-sound correspondences
Lead to automatic word reading through multiple opportunities to read and reread
Use knowledge of word order (syntax) and content to support decoding and confirm word meaning in context
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-4
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will decode words
containing initial
consonant blends.
Consonant
Blends
Chart
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Consonant Blends
Chart
(adapted)
Consonant
Blends Cards/
Magnets
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Word Study and Spelling-5
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will decode words
containing r-controlled
vowels.
Making and
Sorting Words
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Making and Sorting
Words
(adapted)
Letter Swap
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Word Study and Spelling-6
Word Study and Spelling
Words Study and Spelling-7
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Multisyllabic Word Recognition
Irregular Word Recognition
Automatic Word Identification
Fluent Reading With Understanding
Definition and Components
Structural Analysis
Definition
Components
Structural Analysis is the process of recognizing unknown words by using knowledge of word structure.
Structural Analysis includes:
base words (e.g.,
wilt
in
wilt
ed)
compound words (e.g.,
sun
set
)
inflectional endings (e.g.,
-ed
in wilt
ed
)
suffixes (e.g.,
-less
in care
less
)
prefixes (e.g.,
un-
in
un
happy), and
contractions (e.g., isn
'
t for is not)
TEKS
1.3
1.4
2.2
2.5
3.1
Word Study and Spelling-8
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Guidelines for Teaching
Structural Analysis
Use the critical features of effective instruction
Present initial instruction using regularly spelled words or previously learned irregular words.
Provide sequential instruction that proceeds from simple to complex.
Include a number of activities to generalize skills connected to print.
Integrate spelling instruction to support structural analysis instruction.
Lead to automatic word recognition through multiple opportunities to read and reread.
Use knowledge of word order (syntax) and content to support structural analysis and confirm word meaning.
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-9
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will make and identify
compound words.
Compound
Creations
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Compound Creations
(adapted)
Compound
Puzzles
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-10
Decoding
Structural Analysis
Word Study and Spelling
Words Study and Spelling-11
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Multisyllabic Word Recognition
Irregular Word Recognition
Automatic Word Identification
Fluent Reading With Understanding
Decoding
Structural Analysis
Definition and Description
of Multisyllabic Word Recognition
Definition
Description
Multisyllabic Word Recognition focuses on words that have two or more syllables and develops as students learn a variety of common syllable patterns.
Multisyllabic Word Recognition includes:
learning what a syllable is,
understanding that words are composed of one or more syllables,
recognizing the six common syllable patterns,
applying knowledge of syllable patterns to identify unknown longer words, and
applying knowledge of syllable patterns to spell words.
TEKS
K.2
1.2
1.3
2.2
3.1
3.24
4.22
Word Study and Spelling-12
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Strategy for Multisyllabic Words
SPLIT
SPLIT Rule
Syllable Patterns
ee the syllable patterns
lace a line between syllables
ook at each syllable
dentify the syllable sounds
ry to say the word
S
P
L
I
T
Closed:
pan, shot, magnet, exit, rabbit, Monday
Open:
so, he, baby, lazy, bacon, item
VCe:
make, pipe, lonely, invite, profile, wishbone
Vowel-r:
star, dirt, turnip, perfect, corner, carpool
Vowel pair:
sail, heat, boyhood, sixteen, oatmeal, moonstruck
Final stable:
puzzle, bubble, candle, station, contraction, fraction
Word Study and Spelling-13
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Guidelines for Teaching
Multisyllabic Word Recognition
Use the critical features of effective instruction.
Introduce the syllable patterns by reinforcing previously taught patterns.
Use words or word parts that are familiar to students.
Integrate structural analysis instruction by using words with prefixes and suffixes.
Lead to automatic word reading through multiple opportunities to read and reread.
Use knowledge of word order (syntax) and conent to support multisyllabic word recognition and confirm word meaning.
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-14
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will recognize multisyllabic words
containing the closed syllable
pattern.
Closed Syllable
Search
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Closed Sylllable Search
(adapted)
Closed Syllable
Namesakes
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-15
Word Study and Spelling
Words Study and Spelling-16
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Multisyllabic Word Recognition
Irregular Word Recognition
Automatic Word Identification
Fluent Reading With Understanding
Decoding
Structural Analysis
Definition and Components of Irregular Word Recognition
Definition
Components
Irregular Word Recognition focuses on words in which some or all of the letters do not represent their most common sounds.
Irregular words include:
High frequency, partially decodable words (e.g., said, what, you), and
Lower frequency, partially decodable words (e.g., fourth, country, muscle).
TEKS
K.1
K.2
1.2
1.3
2.2
3.1
Word Study and Spelling-17
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Guidelines for Teaching
Irregular Word Recognition
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Phonological Awareness-18
Use the critical features of effective instruction.
Teach irregular words that occur most frequently in text.
Introduce irregular words before students encounter them.
Identify irregular words with common parts and teach them as word families.
Limit the number of irregular words introduced in a single lesson.
Separate visually similar irregular words into different lessons to avoid confusion.
Lead to automatic word reading through multiple opportunities to read and reread.
Use knowledge of word order (syntax) and content to support irregular word recognition and confirm word meaning.
A B C D E F G H


I J K L M N O P


Q R S T U V W X


Y Z
Word Walls
Word Walls can be used to sort words according to a number of characteristics. These words are sorted alphabetically.
answer
color
could
listen
old
other
reign
said
should
sugar
thought
water
who
yacht
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-19
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will recognize irregular,
high-frequency words.
Irregular Word
Blackout Bingo
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Irregular Word
Blackout Bingo
(adapted)
Look/Say/
Cover/Write
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-20
Word Study and
Spelling
Words Study and Spelling-21
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Multisyllabic Word Recognition
Irregular Word Recognition
Automatic Word Identification
Fluent Reading With Understanding
Decoding
Structural Analysis
Definition and Description
of Spelling Instruction
Definition
Description
Spelling is the process of converting spoken words into their written forms.
TEKS
K.18
1.22
2.23
3.24
4.22
5.22
Word Study and Spelling-22
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Spelling:
requires students to remember and reproduce letters and letter sequences,
links to decoding and phonological awareness,
provides opportunities for students to use their phonological knowledge, and
can be taught with explicit instruction.
Guidelines for Teaching Spelling
Use the critical features of effective instruction.
Teach spelling simultaneously with word study instruction.
Introduce a limited number of new words or patterns in one lesson.
Use dictation so that students write each word as they focus on the sounds heard in the word.
Encourage students to segment individual sounds in words to spell them.
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-23
Instructional Plan
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Word Study and Spelling-24
TEKS
Fluency
Definition and Description
of Fluency
Definition
TEKS
1.6
2.4
3.3
Fluency-2
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
"Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension. "
4.1
5.1
Fluency is the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with expression.
Description
Fluency is addressed in the TEKS as:
Guidelines for Building
Reading Fluency
Begin fluency instruction when students demonstrate requisite skills.
Select appropriate texts.
Model fluent reading for students.
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Fluency-3
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will read passages with
improved rate and accuracy.
Partner
Reading
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Partner Reading
(adapted)
Mini-Passages
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Fluency-4
Instructional Activities
Objective: The student
will read phrases with
improved rate and accuracy.
Chunking
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Phrase
Card Reading
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Fluency-5
Chunking
(adapted)
Instructional Plan
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Fluency-6
TEKS
Comprehension
Reading Comprehenion Instruction
Definition and description of reading comprehension
Narrative and expositiory texts
Questioning techniques
Vocabulary development
Guidelines for reading comprehension instruction
Comprehension strategies for before, during, and after reading
Instructional activities designed to teach reading comprehension
An instructional plan for implementing comprehension in your classroom
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-2
Definition and Description
of Reading Comprehension
TEKS
Definition
Reading comprehension is the abiltiy to gain meaning from text.
Description
Reading comprehension involves:
reading widely for different purposes in varied sources,
developing an extensive vocabulary,
using a variety of strategies to comprehend text,
responding to various texts,
recognizing and analyzing the characteristics of various types of texts, and
generating questions and conducting research using information from a variety of sources.
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-3
Narrative and Expository Texts
Reading narrative and expository texts helps students to:
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-4
comprehend a variety of written materials

build and extend background knowledge about a variety of topics
learn how narrative and expository texts are organized and written

learn to identify different genres and to distinguish between fact and fantasy
Suggestions for Using Questioning Techniques
Use different types and
levels of questions to
involve students and
check their level of
understanding.
Promote the use of
questions and
conversations among
students to keep them
actively engaged.
Give sufficient
time for students
to think and
respond.
Provide
appropriate
feedback.
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-5
Comprehension-6
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Vocabulary Development
Vocabulary develpment is how students acquire meaning and understanding of new words and concepts.
Vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension are highly related.
To promote reading comprehension, students need to develop an understanding of how words can be used across contexts and to understand the meaning of words quickly as they read.
Vocabulary instruction includes explicit instruction on key words as well as strategies to help students learn new words independently.
Guidelines for Teaching
Reading Comprehension
Comprehension Instructional Framework
Activate background knowledge
Teach vocabulary
Establish a purpose for reading
Have students preview the text
Use questioning techniques
Have students use graphic organizers
Haveudent sts self-monitor
Have students use fix-up strategies
Use questioning techniques
Review vocabulary
Have students summarize
Have students complete and revise graphic organizers
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-7
Reading Comprehension
Strategies
Comprehension strategies...
are plans or procedures that readers use and apply before, during and after reading;
are under the control of the reader, who makes decisions about which strategies to use and when to use them; and
include predicting, self-monitoring, identifying the main idea, summarizing, and reareading to clarify.
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-8
Instructional Activities- Before Reading
Objective: The student
will improve reading
comprehension by previewing
text.
Previewing
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Previewing
(adapted)
Building
Background
Knowledge
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-9
Instructional Activities-During Reading
Objective: The student
will improve reading
comprehension by determining
the main idea of a passage.
Get the Gist
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Get the Gist
(adapted)
Check the
Main Idea
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-10
Instructional Activities-After Reading
Objective: The student
will improve reading
comprehension by summarizing
an entire passage.
Wrap-Up
Less More
Intensive
More Less
Pervasive
Wrap-Up
(adapted)
Questioning
and Summarizing
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-11
Instructional Plan
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-12
TEKS
Culminating Activity
Effective Instruction for Struggling Readers:
Research-Based Practices
Phonological
Awareness
Word Study
& Spelling
Fluency
Comprehension
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Comprehension-13
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
Introduction-3
Section 3
3.3
3.24
4.22
5.22
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
(c) 2003 UTS/TEA
(3a) Word Study
Overview
(3b) WS Decoding
Phonological
Awareness
(3c) Structural
Analysis
(3d) Multisyllabic
Word Recgnition
(3e) Irregular
Word
Recognition
Fluency -
Partner Reading
Comprehension
Handout 10A
Full transcript