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Transcript of Body Systems
(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;
(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as human body systems and plant and animal cells
(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and
(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content. Alignment to 7th Grade Curriculum (12) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. The student is expected to:
(B) identify the main functions of the systems of the human organism, including the circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems;
(C) recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms;
(E) compare the functions of a cell to the functions of organisms such as waste removal; and
(F) recognize that according to cell theory all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life. NSTA Standards Systems, order, and organization.
Evidence, models, and explanation.
Change, constancy, and measurement.
Evolution and equilibrium.
Form and function. The Muscular System Did you know...?? There are muscles in the root of your hair that give you goose bumps. It takes 17 muscles to smile and 42 muscles to frown. There are more than 30 facial muscles which help create looks of happiness, surprise and sadness on your face. Importance & Relevance to Curriculum http://kidshealth.org/parent/interactive/digestive_it.html Did you know...?? Did you know...?? The Digestive System Did you know...?? Aristotle 4th century 11th
century Galen Avicenna 10th
century Alessandro Benedetti 15th
century Descartes 16th
century Thomas Willis 17th
century Greek philosopher
Believed that the nerves came from, and were controlled by the heart (which he believed was the most important organ in the body)
Heart was the "seat of all motion and sensation" Roman physician
Disagreed with Aristotle
Believed that the brain was the most important organ and that the nerves were extensions from the brain that flowed to the rest of the body from the spinal cord Agreed with Galen
Nerves were branches of the spinal cord that extended to the rest of the body
He and his colleagues did research on the actual arrangement of nerves in the body
Believed that the nerves were related to emotion Work with cadavers
Described a more accurate view of the nervous system
Very detailed Wanted to understand how messages were transmitted through the body
Discovered that the nervous system responded to "stimuli" Coined the term "neurologie" as the study of neuroanatomy The average weight of a human brain is between 2.8 and 3.1 pounds! Nerve impulses can travel from the brain at speeds up to 170 miles (274 kilometers) per hour! The average number of neurons in the brain is 100 billion! Ancient medical practitioners were unsure of the function and distinction of arteries and veins
Galen believed that there were two distinct circulatory systems
Arterial and venous
Jacopo Berengario de Carpi
Recognized the relationship between arteries and veins
Leonardo da Vinci
Argued that the veins and arteries both came from the heart
Established that the arteries and veins existed in a single circulatory system
On the Circulation of the Blood
Human and animal dissection that proved the single circulatory system theory Essential for understanding the major body parts and systems
Will help with future learning and post-secondary schooling Students will better understand the science of living things Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius
15th and 16th centuries
“man without skin”
Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy
Described the muscular structure and functions
Established a more solid perspective on the muscular system
Treatise on Man
Described the muscular system and man as a machine At first, Scientists thought the digestive system maintained the balance of the body.
Galen believed that the stomach could feel when it was empty and generate its own feeling of hunger
The stomach was the source of nutrition
Islamic medical philosopher
recognized the importance of nutrition and diet
As scientists began to practice more dissections, the
organs that were involved in digestion became more obvious
Berengario de Carpi
described the structure of the digestive system and how it was connected to other parts of the body
Jan Baptiste Van Helmont
Offered the first chemical account of digestion As the heart contracts and blood rushes into the aorta, it is traveling at a speed of about 8 inches (20 centimeters) per second! If you put your circulatory system on a straight line, it is actually long enough to orbit the earth two and a half times! Every second, 10 million red blood cells die in the normal adult. The body replaces them just as quickly, however, so the total number remains constant! Works Cited Bernard, P. (2005) A few fun facts about your muscular system. Your Amazing Muscular System.
Chudler, E. (2013). Neurons. Neuroscience For Kids.
Findlen, P., Bence, R. ( 2012). History of the body. Early Science Law.
Johnson, K. (2012). Your digestive system. WebMD.
Lee, B., Johnson, K., Sanders, M., Kirk, K., Williams, T., Whitfield, C. (2011). R.E.A.L. science odyssey. Pandia Press.
McDowell, J. (2010). Encyclopedia of human body systems. Westport, CT, USA: ABC-CLIO.
Mehta, S.(2011). Muscular system facts. Buzzle.
Ross, J., Horton-Szar, D. (2012a). Crash course : Cardiovascular system (4th edition). Edinburgh, GBR: Mosby Ltd.
Ross, J., Horton-Szar, D. (2012b). Crash course : Nervous system (4th edition). Edinburgh, GBR: Mosby Ltd.
Roth, S.( 2006). Why does lactic acid buildup in muscles? And why does it cause soreness? Scientific American.
K. (2011). Body systems: digestive system: peristalsis. Science Matters.
(2013). Systems of the human body. AAAS Science NetLinks.
(2013). Your muscles. KidsHealth from Nemours.
(2013). Your heart and circulatory system. KidsHealth from Nemours.
(2013). Rationale. The National Academies Press.
Stations!! Station 1: Digestive System Station 2: Nervous System Station 3: Muscular System Station 4: Circulatory System Food remains in the esophagus for as little as five seconds before entering the stomach! The human stomach can hold as much as 2.1 quarts (2 liters) of food! Gastric juice is 100,000 times more acidic than water and has about the same acidity as battery acid.