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MDMA vs. Ketamine

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Natale Kassabian

on 22 March 2016

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Transcript of MDMA vs. Ketamine

MDMA is also known as Ecstasy is a hallucinogen giving psychedelic effects which can last up to 3-6 hours. The drug is taken orally usually in a capsule of tablet form and widely used in the “club scene”.

Why is Ketamine prescribed? What does it do to help alleviate a patient's symptoms?
Ketamine is an anesthetic and is used to put a patient to sleep during surgery. It helps prevent pain and discomfort during medical procedures.
Ketamine (also known as “K” or “Special K”) is a drug which is used both medically and sometimes abused recreationally. The drug is used for starting up and maintaining anesthesia but also can be used for providing pain relief, sedation, and memory loss.
If misused or abused, a person might experience:
Feelings of detachment/dissociation
Slowed or difficult breathing
Mood changes
Impaired ability to think or learn
Nausea and vomiting
Memory impairment
If misused or abused, a person might experience:
Increases in heart rate and blood pressure
Muscle tension
Teeth clenching
Nausea (feeling sick)
Blurred vision
Chills or sweating
Higher body temperature (can lead to serious heart, liver, or kidney problems)

Type of synapse the drug works in
The gap between the axon terminal of the serotonin neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron. Within the synapse, the serotonin gets released.
Symptoms & Outcomes
MDMA vs. Ketamine
MDMA vs. Ketamine

What are MDMA's overall effects on the body?
Once the pill or capsule is swallowed, it takes about 15 minutes for MDMA to enter the bloodstream and reach the brain. MDMA produces its effects by increasing the activity of three neurotransmitters (the chemical messengers of brain cells): serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.People who use MDMA might feel very alert, or “hyper,” at first. Some lose a sense of time and have other changes in perception, such as a more intense sense of touch.
Happens in presynaptic receptor blockade and postsynaptic receptor activation in order for antidepressant effects to work.

What happens when it enters the synapse?
When the drug enters the synapse it causes a higher release of the neurotransmitter serotonin and its binding to serotonin receptors attached to the synapse.
When Ketamine enters the synapse, it triggers the release of neurotransmitter glutamate and reverses the conflicts that are caused by stress. It relieves depression.
Neuronal Effects
MDMA affects the brain by increasing the activity of at least three neurotransmitters (the chemical messengers of brain cells): serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. By releasing large amounts of serotonin, MDMA causes the brain to become significantly depleted of this important neurotransmitter, contributing to the negative behavioral aftereffects that users often experience for several days after taking MDMA.
When it enters the body, it inhibits the neuron synapse and decreases the neurotransmitters instead of increasing it.
Side Effects
anxiety, restlessness, irritability, sadness, impulsiveness, aggression, sleep disturbances, lack of appetite, thirst, reduced interest in and pleasure from sex, significant reductions in mental abilities
dream-like feeling, blurred vision, double vision, jerky muscle movements, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or sleep problems (insomnia)
Primary Active Ingredients
Ephedrine is often found in “herbal ecstasy” and Ketamine is found in some MDMA pills as well

Its chemicals are what it’s mainly made of, cyclohexanone hydrochloride
It is also combined with salt-based solutions that can be easily absorbed by body cells

How the drug is used by the body overall
In the cardiovascular system, MDMA increases heart rate and blood pressure
In the nervous system, MDMA increases the activity of neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine
In the muscular system MDMA effects muscular tension, involuntary jaw clenching and causes jaw problems. Blurred vision, loss of control over voluntary body movements, fainting, tremors, kidney failure and liver damage.
In the nervous system, It acts on the brain's chemical system and alters neurotransmitters and destabilizes the chemical balance.
In the cardiovascular system, it can have a depressant effect on the cardiac system and cardiac arrest can occur.

When too much of the drug is introduced into the synapse...
It can lead to an increase in body temperature that can result in kidney failure. It can damage neurons in the brain and an increase in blood pressure.
When Ketamine is taken in larger or repeated doses, it can result in cardiac arrest
How is the drug broken down/ metabolized?
MDMA is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Onset of action is within 30 minutes and peak serum levels occur after one to three hours.. The elimination half-life is approximately seven hours. Like amphetamines, alkaline urine can increase the half-life of MDMA to 16-31 hours.MDMA is metabolised in the liver to an active metabolite (methydioxyamphetamine), which has a longer half-life (16–38 hours).
Absorbed in the Liver and excreted through the urinal tract
Works Cited
Natale Kassabian, Savannah Kao, Justin Durden, Mikele Agahi-Farman
Effects on the Systems
Autonomic Nervous System- MDMA affects this system as during its “high” causes this systems control of hormone levels which generate a pupil dilation, a loss of appetite, and jaw tensions/teeth grinding.
Sympathetic- As MDMA enters the brain the drug stimulates the sympathetic nervous system neurons which causes the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, which causes the “fight or flight” physiological change in the body.
Central Nervous System: The intake of MDMA affects the central nervous system as it causes the releasing of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The long-term use of the drug can cause damage to dopamine nerve-endings in the brain along with the decreased release of serotonin in the brain giving the users negative aftereffects from the Central Nervous System.
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