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Colon Cancer

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by

Symone Clark

on 10 March 2015

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Transcript of Colon Cancer

Background
Commonly known as Colon Cancer,
Colorectal Cancer
,
occurs when abnormal cells grow out of control and form a mass, or tumor. Colon cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting both men and women,aged 50 or older, and is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. Colon has five different stages, which exhibit different symptoms and require different treatments. Most colon cancers begin as polyps, that eventually turn into tumors. Colon cancer most often spreads to the liver, but it can also spread to other places such as the lungs, peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), or distant lymph nodes.


Causes & Symptoms
Age
Personal/Family Medical History
Cigarette Smoking
Genetic Mutations
Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease
Environmental or other factors may trigger genetic changes in the intestine that lead to cancer.
Colon Cancer:
Diagnosis
Physical Exam
your doctor will carefully feel your abdomen for masses or enlarged organs, and also examine the rest of your body.
Your doctor may also perform a digital rectal exam (DRE).
During this test, the doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormal areas.
Doctor may also test your stool to see if it contains blood that isn’t visible to the naked eye (occult blood).
Colon Cancer Treatments
5 Stages
Treatments (continued)
Stage 3
(cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, but to other parts of the body.)
Partial colectomy & Chemo is standard treatment for this stage
FOLFOX or CapeOx are used most often as regimens
Radiation Therapy is advised
Survival Rate
The outlook for your recovery depends on the stage of your cancer.
The “5-year survival rate” means the percentage of people who live 5 years or more after being diagnosed.
Stage I has a 74% 5-year survival rate
stage IV has a 5-year survival rate of only 6%.
Understanding
Colon Cancer

Presented By:
Simone Clark
1st Period

Works Cited Page
http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/colon-cancer/background.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK115810/

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/colon_cancer/page2_em.htm

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/colorectal-cancer-treating-by-stage-colon

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/colorectal-cancer-diagnosed
Changes in bowel movements, such as diarrhea or constipation, or change in consistency of stools
Abdominal discomfort such as gas, bloating, and cramps
Rectal bleeding or blood in stool
Unexplained weight loss
Unexplained iron-deficiency anemia (low red blood cell count)
Weakness and fatigue
Risk Factors:
Who & What Does It Effect ?
Men & Women, aged 50 and older
If you've had Breast,Uterine, Or Ovarian Cancer now or in the past
Unhealthy Diet
Smoking
Drug Effects
Inherited Genes
Colon cancer effects major organs of the digestive system, including the colon and/or rectum.
Stage 0 (
Cancer has grown into the muscle layer of the colon or rectum)
Surgery to take out the cancer is all that is needed, due to the fact that the cancers have not grown beyond the inner lining of the colon.
May be done by:
Polypectomy
Local excision through a colonoscope
Colectomy

Stage 1
(includes cancers that were part of a polyp)
cancers have grown through several layers of the colon, but they have not spread outside the colon wall.
If polyp is removed completely, with no other cancer cells in margins, no further treatment is needed.
If not, more surgery is advised
For cancers not in a polyp, partial colectomy is standard treatment
Stage 2 (
Cancer has grown into or through the outermost layer of the colon or rectum)
Haven't reached lymph nodes yet.
A partial colectomy may be the only treatment needed
Chemo may be recommended after surgery if your cancer has a higher risk of returning
May advise Radiation Therapy
Stage 4
(cancer has spread from the colon to distant organs and tissues)
Surgery is unlikely to cure these cancers
partial colectomy to remove the section of the colon containing the cancer along with nearby lymph nodes, plus surgery to remove the areas of cancer spread.
Chemo is given before/after surgery
hepatic artery infusion may be used if the cancer has spread to the liver.
If the cancer is too widespread to try to cure it with surgery, chemo is the main treatment
Blood Tests
Complete blood count (CBC)
To check anemia, some people with colorectal cancer become anemic because of prolonged bleeding from the tumor.
Liver enzymes
to check liver functions, colon cancer can spread to your liver
Tumor markers
Colorectal cancer cells sometimes make substances called tumor markers that can be found in the bloodstream
Tests/Screenings To Look For Colon Cancer:
Colonoscopy
Biopsy
Imaging test
s
Computed tomography
(CT or CAT)
scan
Ultrasound
Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI)
scan
Chest x-ray
Positron emission tomography
(PET)
scan
Angiography
http://www.cancercenter.com/video/cancer-types/medanim/colon-cancer/
Preventions:
People with an average risk of colon cancer can consider screening beginning at age 50
African-Americans and American Indians may consider beginning colon cancer screening at age 45.
Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all
Stop smoking
Exercise most days of the week
Maintain a healthy weight.
Full transcript