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Unification of Germany I

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on 1 July 2015

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Transcript of Unification of Germany I

Unification of Germany: 1815-1848
Napoleon Stirred Up German Nationalism
Abolished the old "
Holy Roman Empire
", established
Conderation of the Rhine
controlled by France;
How Could Germany be Unified?
What were the players and their plans?
How Could Germany be Unified?
Germany before its Unification
A geographic term for the
German speaking part of Europe.
A collection of small
German States.
Two strongest German States:
Austria and Prussia
Before 1789
"Holy Roman Empire"
more than 250 small states
German Confederation
39 states in a loose confederation
"Confederation of the Rhine"
Changes of "Germany" from before 1789 to 1860s
Allow Larger German States to
take over
the smaller, weak ones.
In reponse to French rule, Germans developed
a sense of nationalism and patriotism.
The Rise of German Nationalism
As a legacy of the Napoleonic War, people see the benefits brought by the unification and now start to push for it.
from more than 250 to 39 states
Two Leaders
German Conservatives (the one who control the government and army)
German Liberals (the one who is wealthy and highly educated and enlightened )
German Radicals (the one who is poor and has nothing to lose in a revolution )
Plans and Actions of Different Classes
Who would lead the unification?
Infertile land and weaker military power
Leaders of German states for a long time
militarism tradition
WHen talking about the unification...
What are the different parts of "Germany" are we talking?
South G
North G
Small G Plan
Big G Plan
What are the supporting and hindering conditions
Supporting Conditions of Unification
1. Spread of liberalism and nationalism
2. The Zollverein
3. The rise of Prussia both economically and militarily in the 1860s
Hindering Conditions
1. European great powers may oppose
any changes to the German Confederation
established by the Congress of Vienna, especially the nationalism;
4. The south and north states were
divided by religions
(Catholic and Protestant);
3. The enthusiasm from nationalism may not excite the
conservatives and peasants
, who was still loyal to local rulers;
2. The German States was still very
agricultural and made up of small towns
Other powers
will not just observe Germany growing stronger without doing anything.
Cultural Nationalism
German Cultural Renaissance
Brothers Grimm
Caspar David Friedrich
The Zollverein
German Custom Union
Incorporated 17 states and
26 million people
worked with
an assembly
, signed commecial treaities as a nation by unanimous consent;
raw material and goods entered and circulated in the union
for free
"Towards the Germanization of the people"
Prussia initiated
the Union, Austria never participated it;
The Rise of Prussia
1. Rich resource from the Rhineland: Coal and Iron Ore;
2. By 1847, Prussia owned 56% (2325 km) of all railway in Germany;
3. Machine, labour, market: industrial foundation were ready by 1852;
The Needle Gun
The Krupps breech-loaded artillery
Military Reform in 1860s
How Could Germany be Unified?
German Nationalist Movement: 1815-1848
1848 Revolution in Germany
Nationalist Movement before 1848
Main Players: students and professors
In 1817, the Burschenschaften students assembled and burned reactionary books, marking the start of the movement;
In 1832, 25000 nationalists demonstrated and was soon suppressed by troops;
The Reactionary response
ban political clubs
subversive literature
the national flag
39 states co-operate against nationalist
Collapse of Austria and Compromise of Prussia
Liberal gov. in German States
National Assembly to decide the Unification
Divided opinions
Offer the throne to Prussia and United 29 states in a consitution
Prussia and Austira Refused and dissolved the assembly in Apr. 1849
Why did the liberal proposal fail?
No sufficient agreement on the form of a new Germany
The new German government and assembly was weak and had no army to support
No actual confidence on the new consitutional regime and fears of unrest and violence from revolution
Prussian and Austrian conservative powers were quick to restore themselves and fighted back
the weakness of nationalism and liberalism
Influence from outside power on German affairs
Unification does not simply take place in Germany
In the first half of 1800s...
Liberals and Radicals
efforts and plans failed
dared not challenge Austria
had no motivation to conduct unification
To unify Germany, we need...
Strong army
to clean out foreign intervetions
Strong leader
who pushes for unification
"Iron Chancellor"
Full transcript