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The Art (and Craft and Science) of Management
Transcript of The Art (and Craft and Science) of Management
What's management? Neat! But that's... vague.
What do managers actually do? Ok...
What's the science behind it? “Management is the science of employing resources efficiently in the accomplishing of a goal." "Good management is the art of making problems so interesting and their solutions so constructive that everyone wants to get to work and deal with them." "Management is essentially a craft... It's something you learn how to do." Management is, above all, a practice
where art, science, and craft meet. Well, let's start here: And know that some might add... And many would tell you... In theory, they "POSDCoRB."
Catchy, right? Plan Organize Staff Direct Coordinate Report Budget In reality, managers perform many roles... monitor, disseminator, spokesperson Informational: leader, liaison, figurehead Interpersonal: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator Decisional: Well, there are many theoretical approaches to management Phew.
I've changed my mind:
tell me about the craft. Motivating According to the formula, ability x support x effort = performance. Managers influence performance! Measuring Managers must analyze qualitative and quantitative data to ensure that goals are met and the staff performs well. Innovating "In the end, any innovation* involves a leap into the unknowable. If we are to make progress, however, that's a fact we need to accept and manage." Planning Effective planning requires time and careful thought. Communicating "Communication is the life blood of the organization and the oxygen of change within it." Delegating There aren't enough hours in the day and different people have different skills. OK,
Let's talk about
SKILLS "Creativity" is the process of producing new ideas while "innovation" refers to implementing a new idea in an organization. A good manager should be interested in brand spankin' new ideas, but it doesn't hurt to borrow best practices. How do I become a great manager?
What's the art of it? There are some intangibles... Jim Collins (2005) came up with the concept of Level 5 Leadership to describe the very best leaders. I don't suppose you have a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will? Your relationship with your workforce is key Theorist Douglas McGregor (1960) proposed that organizations work on a set of assumptions about what motivates a worker. The continuum falls on two extremes.... Theory X Theory Y Work is distasteful to most and they will attempt to avoid it
Most people are not ambitious and do not desire responsibility
Most people have little creativity or problem-solving ability
People are motivated by physiological needs and concerns about their security
Most people must be closely controlled or coerced to achieve objectives Work can be satisfying, and as natural as rest or play
Control and threats are not the only ways to make people work
People can strengthen commitment by finding rewards in helping organizations achieve worthwhile goals
Most people, in the right circumstances, learn to accept and even seek responsibility
Many people possess creative problem-solving skills -- most organizations don't utilize them! Though it may be out of your control, it's better to cultivate more of a "Theory Y" atmosphere. Awesome I want to be a great... wait... leader? Manager? Executive, supervisor, administrator? What’s the difference? There are many definitions, and it's important to note that managers and leaders can be found in all types of organizations: business, non-profits, schools, churches, teams, clubs, and so on, and with all kinds of titles. The important distinction is between "leadership" and "management" "Leadership," like love, is easy to recognize but difficult to define. It requires no formal authority, just the ability to lead. One definition (of many) describes leadership as "a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task." Thanks, Wikipedia! You'll also want to develop your own personal style Start by asking yourself some key questions: 1. What don't I like done to me?
2. What type of direction or supervision do I like?
3. What type of directions am I comfortable giving?
4. Can I (and how do I) tell someone that he or she has done a good or bad job? In some circles, "management" carries a less impressive connotation than "leadership" "The manager is a copy; the leader is an original."
"The manager maintains; the leader develops."
"The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust."
"The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing."
"The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it."
"The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader's eye is on the horizon." But managers needn't be discouraged. “Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves.” Good managers demonstrate leadership Did you notice that most discussions about management involve staff? "Management, at its most basic level, is the process of accomplishing things through people." But managers have to deal
with so much more! Money Technology Space Logistics Time Policies Procedures Promotion Emergencies Laws Resources Users Customers This sounds challenging and fun.
Where do I begin? There's no substitute for hard work: prospective managers need meaningful experience and a solid education Still, I may have gleaned a hint or two from a textbook of mine... Know... your strengths and weaknesses
that career development is an investment of time and money
that realistic self-promotion will move a career forward.
things change: career goals are important, but flexibility is essential Learn... how to communicate and influence others positively
to think clearly and maintain objectivity
to understand how others think and show concern unobtrusively
to make decisions, and to be willing to change them if necessary
when to delegate
to recognize mistakes and grow from them
time management Do... have high standards and demonstrate them
demonstrate commitment regardless of the job
be reliable and adaptable
have a sense of humor
innovate and challenge
stay up-to-date on best practices
believe in yourself
enjoy the job you have; if you don’t, try to find another Bennis, W. G. (1994). On becoming a leader. Reading, Mass: Perseus Books.
Collins, J. C. (2005). Good to great and the social sectors: A monograph to accompany good to great: why some companies make the leap ... and others don't. Boulder, CO: Jim Collins.
Evans, G.E. & Ward, P.L. (2007). Management basics for information professionals (2nd ed.). New York: Neal-Schumann Publishers, Inc.
Gill, R. (2003). Change management--or change leadership?. Journal Of Change Management, 3(4), 307.
Hawken, P., Lovins, A. B., & Lovins, L. H. (1999). Natural capitalism: Creating the nextindustrial revolution. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
Merton, R. C. (2013). Innovation Risk. Harvard Business Review, 91(4), 48-56.
Mintzberg, H. (1990). The manager's job: Folklore and fact. Harvard Business Review, 68, 163-163.
Richman, L. (2006). Improving your project management skills. New York: American Management Association.
Wall Street Journal. (n.d) What is the difference between leadership and management? Retrieved from guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/what-is-the-difference-between-management-and-leadership/ Scientific Administrative Behavioral Quantitative Systems Contingency Quality Composite An early approach which emphasized the organizational aspects of work. Primary concerns include developing specialized tasks and efficient workflows as well as developing a well-trained staff, all with the general goal of improving production. This approach focuses more on the overall organization and how hierarchies and bureaucracies should be structured. It recognizes the need for management training. The behavioral approach focuses on the effect of worker motivation on productivity. Aspects of motivation like social interaction and self-actualization are paramount in this “humanist” school of thought. Also called “management science,” applies mathematical concepts to organizational issues. This logic-heavy approach uses mathematical models and computing power to predict different outcomes and create solutions for problems. General systems theory, or GST, conceives of everything as part of a larger system, stressing the need to think about the interdependency of all parts of an organization and to develop complex solutions for complex problems. This theory stresses the idea that there is no universal answer to management challenges. Managers must develop an extensive knowledge base as well as the ability to assess a situation and apply the correct approach and action. The quality approach argues that successful organizations are the ones which serve satisfied customers, and customer satisfaction requires quality service and products which in turn require a committed (and therefore involved and engaged) staff. Rather than adopting a specific approach, many modern thinkers believe today's managers should incorporate knowledge and methods from different perspectives. You caught me! Now that that's out of the way... Thanks for watching! References The Art
(and Craft and Science)
of Management Also from Evans and Ward (2007) Bennis (1994) -- Larry Richman, Business Author -- Paul Hawken, Author and Entrepreneur -- William Hopper, Drucker Institute Writer-in-Residence -- Henry Mintzberg, Theorist Mintzburg (1990) Evans and Ward (2007) Evans and Ward (2007) Evans and Ward (2007) Gill (2003) Evans and Ward (2007) Evans and Ward (2007) Evans and Ward (2007) Merton (2013) Evans and Ward (2007) * An aside: Evans and Ward (2007);
Chemers (1997) cited in Wikipedia Evans and Ward (2007) Evans and Ward (2007) Evans and Ward (2007) Evans and Ward (2007) Wall Street Journal (n.d)