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Architectural Sustainability in Cold Climates

Theories & Examples
by

Özgün Sinal

on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Architectural Sustainability in Cold Climates

What is Cool / Cold Climate The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. Research Outline 1. Introduction to sustainability and sustainable design principles in cool / cold climatic areas. (Briefly)
2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas on examples (through photos, diagrams and projects)
2.1. Energy efficiency
2.1.1. Usage Techniques of Sunlight
a. Daylight in design stages
b. Window Orientation
c. The characteristics of the internal surfaces
2.1.2. Technologies
a. Electricity
b. Heating
c. Water
2.2. Geometry
2.2.1. Site
a. Landform
b. Open Spaces and Built Forms
c. Street Width & Orientation
2.3. Orientation and Planform
2.3.1 Building Envelope
2.3.2. Roof
2.3.3. Walls
2.3.4. Fenestration
2.3.5. Color and Texture
2.4. Materials and Sustainable Design Examples(International)
2.4.1. Sustainability Criteria
2.4.2. Building materials
2.4.3. Case Study - International Examples
3. Conclusion Main Characteristics of Cold Climates
•Low humidity
•Drastic difference between the temperatures of day and night
•Four distinct seasons, summer and winter exceed human comfort range
•Cold to very cold winters with majority of rain and snowfall
•Hot dry summers
•Variable spring and autumn conditions 2.1. Energy Efficiency The characteristics of the internal surfaces

Avoid dark colors except as accents and keep them away from windows.

Aim for recommended surface reflectances. Desirable reflectances (Illuminating Engineering Society recommendations): ceilings >80 per cent; walls 50-70 percent (higher if wall contains a window); floors 20-40 per cent; furniture 25-45 per cent.

Choose matte over shiny surface finishes.

Use light-transmitting materials. 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 1. Introduction to sustainability and sustainable design principles in cool / cold climatic areas.
In cold climates, the most desirable orientation for a building is south.
A second alternative would be one that faces west.
It is advisable to avoid north and east due to their incapability of getting direct sunlight for extended periods of time. Main Characteristics of Cold Climates
•Low humidity
•Drastic difference between the temperatures of day and night
•Four distinct seasons, summer and winter exceed human comfort range
•Cold to very cold winters with majority of rain and snowfall
•Hot dry summers
•Variable spring and autumn conditions

2.1.1. Usage Techniques of Sunlight (Daylight) It can improve the quality of light in a space
Reduce the amount of electrical lighting required. Day lighting in the design stages developer tenant mechanical engineer acoustics and electrical engineers landscape designers


The main objectives of building design in these zones are:

A.Resisting heat loss

•(a) Decrease the exposed surface area of the building.
•(b) Using materials that heat up fast but release heat slowly.
•(c) Providing buffer spaces between the living area and the outside.
•(d) Decreasing the rate of ventilation inside the building.

B.Promoting heat gain
Heat gain can be promoted by

•(a) Avoiding excessive shading.
•(b) Utilizing the heat from appliances.
•(c) Trapping the heat of the sun. such an interdisciplinary team is most effective in resolving lighting issues at the design concept stage. The amount of sunlight that falls on an area changes drastically throughout the year.
The level and distribution of natural light within a space depends primarily upon the following three factors:
The geometry of the space
The location and orientation of windows and other openings
The characteristics of the internal surfaces The general recommendations for these climatic regions are:

1.Site
a.Landform
In cold climates, heat gain is desirable.
buildings should be located on the south slope of a hill or mountain for better access to solar radiation.









Source: Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings


•Exposure to cold winds can be minimised by locating the building on the leeward side.
•Parts of the site which offer natural wind barrier can be chosen for constructing a building.
c.Street width and orientation
•In cold climates, the street orientation should be east-west to allow for maximum south sun to enter the building.
•The street should be wide enough to ensure that the buildings on one side do not shade those on the other side (i.e. solar access should be ensured)







Source: Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings 2.1. Energy Efficiency 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas
2.Orientation and Planform
•Buildings must be compact with small surface to volume ratios to reduce heat loss.









Source: Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings

•Windows should face south to facilitate direct gain.
•The north side of the building should be well-insulated.
•Living areas can be located on the southern side while utility areas such as stores can be on the northern side.
•Air-lock lobbies at the entrance and exit points of the building reduce heat loss.
•Heat generated by appliances in rooms such as kitchens may be used to heat the other parts of the building. Saw-tooth Roof at Beacon Museum in Beacon, New York b.Walls
•Walls should be made of materials that lose heat slowly.
•The south-facing walls (exposed to solar radiation) could be of high thermal capacity (such as Trombe wall) to store day time heat for later used.
•The walls should also be insulated.
•The insulation should have sufficient vapor barrier (such as two coats of bitumen, 300 to 600 gauge polyethylene sheet or aluminum foil) on the warm side to avoid condensation.
•Hollow and lightweight concrete blocks are also quite suitable.
•Skylights can be provided with shutters to avoid over heating in summers.
•On the windward or north side, a cavity wall type of construction may be adopted. c.Fenestration
•It is advisable to have the maximum window area on the southern side of the building to facilitate direct heat gain.
•They should be sealed and preferably double glazed to avoid heat losses during winter nights.
•Condensation in the air space between the panes should be prevented,
•Movable shades should be provided to prevent overheating in summers.

d.Color and texture
•The external surfaces of the walls should be dark in color so that day absorb heat from the sun.

2.1.1. Usage Techniques of Sunlight (Daylight)
Window Orientation Maximize north facing walls & glazing, especially in living areas with passive solar access.
Minimize east & west glazing due to the sun being too low at these points.
Minimize south facing glazing to avoid overheating in the cooling seasons.
Use adjustable shading. Overhangs and fins may be used to prevent glare and overheating.
When the sun is low, buildings and trees can create shading, which is desirable in some seasons and perhaps less so in others.

Outside obstructions can reduce day lighting potential.
The required exposure angles are: http://windows.lbl.gov/pub/designguide/section2.html
East and west obstructions can be beneficial in reducing solar gain in the summer, while admitting energy in the winter when the sun rises in the southeast and sets in the southwest.
All building orientations have day lighting potential, since the average illumination level in overcast skies at 46 degrees latitude is 15 times more than required for normal indoor tasks.
As a general rule, buildings that have their long axes running east and west have a better day lighting potential. Triple Glazing to Reduce Heat Loss Lower the heat loss value Heat gain remains the same
A more recent development in glazing technology. These include glazing materials that can vary their optical or solar properties according to light, heat or electric current. These systems are in prototype stages Switchable Glazing 2.1. Energy Efficiency 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas

2.1.1. Usage Techniques of Sunlight (Daylight) 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas

2.1.2. Technologies 2.1. Energy Efficiency 2.1.2.a. Electricity
Solar Photovoltaic Devices

Photovoltaic conversion is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by means of solar cells.

PV solar panels work better at colder temperatures.

In cold climates, PV panels will generate less energy in the winter than in the summer, but this is due to the shorter days and less sunlight, not the colder temperatures.

Many countries in the northwestern region of Europe make extensive use of solar power.

There are mechanical ways of clearing the snow if it does not melt quickly, such as using a automatic wipers or blowing the snow off with compressed air. the snow will slide off the panels much faster.
proper angle for the system is usually determined by other factors (sun[for efficiency])

Photovoltaic panels installed 30 cm above the roof




Curtain Wall with Photovoltaic Panels
Photovoltaic Panels on Shading Devices 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.1. Energy Efficiency

2.1.2. Technologies
A ground source heat pump system is typically composed of a ground loop, a heat pump and a heat distribution system. 2.1.2.b. Heating
Ground Source Heat Pumps One concern for locations with colder ground temperatures is that the low temperatures can lead to heat pumps operating at the bottom end of their designed operation ranges. An undersized ground loop could result in fluid temperatures that are too cold for the heat pump to operate efficiently.

Another consideration in cold climates is the potential creation of seasonal ground freezing, which could cause heaving of utilities and structures near the ground loop, a reduction of effiiency over time, and other complications. http://www.staticwhich.co.uk/media/images/taster/ground-source-heating-diagram_taster-235549.png Sun Rays http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/House-Construction/The-Site-Part-4.html#.URhULaWEy8A 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.1. Energy Efficiency 2.1.2.c. Water Tanks

Must be opaque to inhibit algae growth

Larger tanks are recommended as a large tank will take longer to freeze than a small one.

Round tank is recommended as a round tank will lose heat more slowly than a rectangular one of the same volume

Straight sides are recommended as corrugated sides have more surface area

Insulation is recommended to prevent freezing in the tank Harvesting Roof Water

35 cm of freshly fallen snow will equal 3 cm of water.

In cold climates of the Northern Hemisphere, choosing the South-Southeast facing sections of roofs are important for harvesting roof water through gutter collection systems.

The southerly areas receive the greatest solar exposure and thus greater snowmelt.

A recent study in a cold climate region in Australia has shown that approximately 80% of the total water requirements can be met through harvesting roof water.
Gutter Collection System Examples in Alpines
Solar Water Heating

Batch collectors, also called Integrated Collector-Storage (ICS) systems, heat water in dark tanks or tubes within an insulated box, storing water until drawn. They are not recommended for cold climates. 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.1. Energy Efficiency 2.1.2.c. Water
Batch Solar Collector Flat-plate collectors typically consist of copper tubes fitted to flat absorber plates. They are typically sized to contain 40 gallons of water. In a cold climate, two collectors can provide roughly half of the hot water needed to serve a family of four. Evacuated tube collectors are the most efficient collectors available. These collectors can even work well in overcast conditions and operate in temperatures as low as 4°C. Individual tubes are replaced as needed. However, evacuated tube collectors can cost twice as much per square foot as flat plate collectors. Evacuated Tube Collector Flat-plate Collector



Direct systems circulate water through solar collectors where it is heated by the sun. These systems are not preferable in cold climates, however with freeze protection they can be utilized.

2.1.2. Technologies

2.1.2. Technologies 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.2. Geometry 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.2. Geometry Geometry at Cold Climate

In Theory:

Regions that fall under the cold climate experience very cold winters. As such, trapping the sun’s heat whenever possible is a major design concern.

The buildings need to be properly insulated so that the internal heat is retained with minimum loss to the environment.

Exposure to cold winds should also be minimized. b.Open spaces and built forms
•Buildings can be clustered together to minimise exposure to cold winds.









•Open spaces between buildings must be such that they allow maximum solar rays to be incident on the building.
•They should be treated with a halt and reflective surface so that day reflect solar radiation onto the building. Source: Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings Source: Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings Daylight penetration into a space can be increased by using light shelves.







Exterior Light Shelves








Interior Light Shelves Scheme









Daylight Penetration Scheme







Exterior Light Shelf Scheme 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.3. Orientation and Planform 3. Building Envelope
a. Roof
• False ceilings with internal insulation such as polyurethane foam (PUF), thermocol, wood wool, etc. are feasible for houses in cold climates.
• Aluminium foil is generally used between the insulation layer and the roof to reduce heat loss to the exterior.
• A sufficiently sloping roof enables quick drainage of rain water and snow.
• A solar air collector can be incorporated on the south facing slope of the roof and hot air from it can be used for space heating purposes.
• Skylights on the roofs admit heat as well as light in winters.







Source: Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings


• Skylights can be provided with shutters to avoid over heating in summers.

Day lighting the core of buildings can be provided through the use of skylights, roof monitors and clerestory windows.

Skylights in GIY House in Ontario, Canada by Tender Group Designers Clerestory Windows Scheme Source: Solar-Protective Glazing for Cold Climates: A Parametric Study of Energy Use in Offices, Marie-Claude Dubois QUICK TIPS for SUSTAINABILITY in COLD CLIMATES:
Insulate
Exceed code requirements
Minimize infiltration
Insolate
Orient the building
Maximize south facing windows for easier control
Apply thermal mass inside the building envelope to store the solar heat
Create a sheltered microclimate to make it less cold 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.3. Materials & Sustainable Design Examples 2.3.1. Sustainability Criteria

Resource Efficiency can be accomplished by utilizing materials that meet the following criteria:
Recycled Content:
Products with identifiable recycled content, including postindustrial content with a preference for postconsumer content.
Natural, plentiful or renewable:
Materials harvested from sustainably managed sources and preferably have an independent certification (e.g., certified wood) and are certified by an independent third party.
Resource efficient manufacturing process:
Products manufactured with resource-efficient processes including reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste (recycled, recyclable and or source reduced product packaging), and reducing greenhouse gases.
Locally available:
Building materials, components, and systems found locally or regionally saving energy and resources in transportation to the project site.
Salvaged, refurbished, or remanufactured:
Includes saving a material from disposal and renovating, repairing, restoring, or generally improving the appearance, performance, quality, functionality, or value of a product.
Reusable or recyclable:
Select materials that can be easily dismantled and reused or recycled at the end of their useful life.
Recycled or recyclable product packaging: Products enclosed in recycled content or recyclable packaging.
Durable:
Materials that are longer lasting or are comparable to conventional products with long life expectancies. 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.3. Materials & Sustainable Design Examples 2.3.2. Building Materials
Closed-loop, or indirect, systems use a non-freezing liquid to transfer heat from the sun to water in a storage tank. These systems are best in cold climates. Resources Resources:
•Alexandre Hugoa and Radu Zmeureanub, Residential solar-based seasonal thermal storage system in cold climate: building envelope and thermal storage, Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada
•Erik Grönlund, Anders Klang, Stefan Falk, Jörgen Hanæusb, Sustainability of wastewater treatment with microalgae in cold climate, evaluated with emergy and socio-ecological principles
•Cold Climate Rainwater Harvesting Systems, Forest Products Labratory, The University of Arizona State, U.S. Department of Agriculture
•Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates, Alaska Center for Energy and Power Cold Climate Housing Research Center
•Heather Kinkade-Levario, Rainwater Collection for Cold Climates
•J.K. Nayak J.A. Prajapati, HANDBOOK ON ENERGY CONSCIOUS BUILDINGS, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources
•Kadir Bakirci, Bedri Yuksel, Experimental thermal performance of a solar source heat-pump system for residential heating in cold climate region
•Keith Robertson M. Arch, NSAA, Solterre Design, Daylighting Guide for Buildings
•M.R. Brown, N. Lo, M.B. Liebman, L.J Dallmer Roach, R.B. Staples, Feasibility of Roof Water Harvesting in a Cold Climate, NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Jindabyne, Australia
•Marie-Claude Dubois, Solar-Protective Glazing for Cold Climates - A Parametric Study of Energy Use in Offices, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
•Mary-Ann Knudstrup, Hanne Tine Ring Hansen, Camilla Brunsgaard, Approaches to the design of sustainable housing with low CO2 emission in Denmark, Department of Architecture & Design, Aalborg University, Gl. Torv 6, DK 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
•Nils W.O. Browna, Tove Malmqvist, Wei Bai, Marco Molinari Royal, Sustainability assessment of renovation packages for increased energy efficiency for multi-family buildings in Sweden Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research (FMS), Drottning Kristinas Väg 30, SE 100 44, Stockholm, Swedenb Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Division of Building Technology, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Tongji University, Sino-German College of Applied Sciences, 200092, Shanghai, China SUSTAINABILIBITY IN COLD CLIMATES PRESENTATION on by Gökçe Kutsal, Özgün Sinal, Ozan Yasar WELCOME Thank you for your attention! (http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/greenbuilding/materials/#Material) 2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas 2.3. Materials & Sustainable Examples 2.3.3. Case Study 1.Residential: Drake Landing, Okotoks, Alberta (Canada) 52 single-detached homes uses a solar district energy system to supply 90% of the homes’ heating and 60% of their domestic hot water needs 800 solar panels located on garage roofs generate 1.5 MW of thermal power Solar energy collected during summer and then redistributed in winter for home heating and hot water. The homes are 30% more efficient than their conventional counterparts Other environmental features include:

Low-impact landscaping
Locally manufactured materials
Specialized air handler units
Low-flow toilets, showerheads and faucets
ENERGY STAR® appliances. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science - Trondheim, Norway The Atrium areas are heated by electrical appliances (Hydro-Power, no CO2) accommodation blocks 3. Baggesensgade Building - Copenhagen (Old Example-1985) Direct and solar gain to offset the space that demand heating Providing a buffer zone with the external environment helps to partially insuate the flat agains the wind South North The project was awarded a prize by the city of Copenhagen as one of the best buildings architecturally



1. All homes will be equipped with solar panels.
2. All homes have exterior venetian blinds. This will allow winter sun to enter the building while the summer sun is reduced.
3. Flower boxes, lawns, green walls and green roofs make the area into a green oasis.
4. Environmentally friendly building materials will be widely used; for instance all wood is FSC certified.
5. All appliances are ‘A’ rated for minimum energy consumption.
6. All taps are designed for minimal water consumption.
7. Inhabitants are offered green electricity. 4. Salongen 35 / KKA (Residential), Malmö, Sweden Architect: KKA
Location: Västra Hamnen, Malmö, Sweden
Client: Höllviksnäs Förvaltnings AB
Area: 400 sqm
Completion: 2011
Design Team: Joakim Kaminsky, Fredrik Kjellgren, Marie Löwenherz, Alessandro Micelli, Yvonne Lohmann, Pamela Paredes, Maria Martinez Materials used:
Cladding: plaster, fiber cement boards and wood.
Roof: Aluzink
Interiors:
Entrance, laundry and kitchen floors are made of recycled terracotta.
Living room and in the dining room the floors are made from a rustic and resistant whitewashed pine and the internal stair is a brushed pine.
In order to get more light into the apartments and provide surprising views of the surroundings, some window reveals have a mirror-face. Insulation is vitally important in cold climate.
Roofs have potential threat for people (Icicles)
The roof should be about the same temperature as the outside. The proper material is Paper Spray with developed chemicals Made from recycled newspapers, cardboard and so on.
Insect resistant and fire retardant
Boric Acid Wool Bricks
Chemically developed bricks is also be adviced for walls in cold climate. http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/hoficlincl/cmhcin/cmhcin_009.cfm Dry hard, reducing the embodied energy as they don’t need to be fired like traditional bricks. http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/hoficlincl/cmhcin/cmhcin_009.cfm http://sustainablecitiescollective.com/joepeach/17346/five-sustainable-building-materials-could-transform-construction Triple Glazed Windows: In fact, super-efficient windows would better describe this particular building material. The three layers of glass do a better job of stopping heat from leaving the building, with fully insulated window frames further contributing. http://www.archdaily.com/228453/salongen-35-kka/ http://www.ehow.com/info_8216729_roofing-cold-climates.html#ixzz2Km0CPAi1 The long life and low maintenance of metal roofing, combined with the savings from energy efficiency, give it a very attractive life-cycle cost. Metal roofs allow snow and ice to slide right off. This capacity prevents the formation of heavy icicles. Heating cables and snow guards prevent sheets of snow from sliding off at one time. Low Weight. Metal roof systems typically vary from 40 to 135 pounds per 100 square feet.
Wind Resistance Advantages in Cold Climate : And,
It would be wise to
*Using non-slippery floor materials in the outside Summary 1. Introduction to sustainability and sustainable design principles in cool / cold climatic areas. (Briefly)
2. Analytical methodology for cold climate areas on examples (through photos, diagrams and projects)
2.1. Energy efficiency
2.1.1. Usage Techniques of Sunlight
a. Daylight in design stages
b. Window Orientation
c. The characteristics of the internal surfaces
2.1.2. Technologies
a. Electricity
b. Heating
c. Water
2.2. Geometry
2.2.1. Site
a. Landform
b. Open Spaces and Built Forms
c. Street Width & Orientation
2.3. Orientation and Planform
2.3.1 Building Envelope
2.3.2. Roof
2.3.3. Walls
2.3.4. Fenestration
2.3.5. Color and Texture
2.4. Materials and Sustainable Design Examples(International)
2.4.1. Sustainability Criteria
2.4.2. Building materials
2.4.3. Case Study - International Examples
3. Conclusion Energy and Environment in Architecture - Nick Baker and Koen Streemers
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