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Visual Communication for Managers - IIMB
Transcript of Visual Communication for Managers - IIMB
"But I can't draw..."
Prof. Dr. Sabrina Bresciani
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Introduction & Motivation
Theory and Practice
Source: Visualizing information for advocacy. An introduction to information design, John Emerson, Principal at Apperceptive LLC.
Why? Dual coding theory & Picture superiority effect
“Visualization provides multiple retrieval paths for accessing knowledge”
Why? Visuospatial reasoning (Tversky 2004)
i.e. pattern recognition, search, overview-zoom
Source: Larkin and Simon 87: Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words
Tversky (2004) and Larkin and Simon (1987)
When visualization is used, cognitive abilities for reasoning, evaluating and solving problems are enhanced
Visuospatial advantages (mapping):
-Reduce cognitive load
- Enhance representation of relationships among complex constructs
(O’Donnel et al. 2002)
Salience (Green Suthers, 2001)
(reducing information overload)
We have always done it...
Visualization makes you happy!
“the use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data to amplify cognition” (Card et al. 1999)
“Knowledge Visualization is expressing concepts through meaningful graphical mapping. “ (Bertschi, Bresciani et al., 2011).
Concepts / ideas
Improving visualizations: NASA case
Tufte, E. R. (1997): Visual Explanations. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphic Press.
Challenger (NASA) 1986
Does it seem easy? Obvious?
7 people died
For visualizing highly multivariate datasets
Rectangular, space-filling approach for visualizing hierarchical data (multilevel / nested)
Application: Many Eyes (IBM)
Data Visualization Tools
for creating graphs, Gantt charts, diagrams, calendars mapping, etc
source: Tufte 2006
Communication from Boeing to NASA
regarding the Columbia space shuttle
"An inconvenient truth"
2007 Nobel Peace Prize
2 Academy Awards
Stephen Few (2006). Information Dashboard Design: The Effective Visual Communication of Data. O'Reilly Media
Strategy communication across cultures
- with text vs. visual
- with culture-specific visuals
- strategy is perceived as better
when it is visualized
- subjects are more committed to implement it!
-Westerners prefer linear abstract diagrams
- Non-westerners prefer metaphors and story-telling
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT BANGALORE
Goal: strategy development
generating ideas and
Does it work?
50% more issues identified and remembered
when visual mapping is used
Source: Bresciani, S., Eppler, M.J. (2009). The Benefits of Synchronous Collaborative Information Visualization: Evidence from an Experimental Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 15 (6), November/December 2009, pp. 1073-1080
Dual Coding Theory
Picture Superiority Effect
(principle used also by NLP)
(Snodgrass Stewart & Stewart, 2001)
Information is processed through one or two channels:
-the verbal/textual and
-the non-verbal or imagery (visual and spatial)
=> Using both channels together increases recall, engagement and attention (Paivio 1971)
Cave paintings - 15.000BC
Zappos is an online shoe and clothing shop
Popular commercial products:
UBS: Explaining and gaining trust
*Documentation for employees