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Characteristics and adaptions that enable living things to fly.

science project
by

Ch La

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Characteristics and adaptions that enable living things to fly.

Types of aerial locomotion: When a bird falls,
they are slowly decreasing the altitude. Then with no adaptions,they increase drag or provide lift. Which will help them have a soft landing. Parachuting is when the bird is falling less than 45 degrees horizontally, with adaptions the bird increases drag. Only very small animals can be carried up by the wind. Flapping
is a movement of wings to produce thrust. The bird may ascend without the aid of wind. Which will help the bird fly For my science project,
I decided to investigate characteristics and adaptions that enable living things to fly. Things that birds do to fly Soaring is essentially a form of gliding. With a morphological adaptions the bird can stay aloft without flapping it's wings. Large wingspans are required for efficient soaring. The anatomy of a bird is designed for flying similar to the aerodynamics of an airplane. In order to stay in the air, birds need to weigh very little. They have hollow bones which are different from the bones of humans or other animals. The most important part of a bird's body is its feathers. It is the light, flexible, strong feathers that enable birds to fly and change direction instantly. The top of the bird's wing is curved (like an airplane's wings) which means the air must move farther over the wing than under. Because the air has farther to go, it moves faster, creating a difference in air pressure on top of the wing and below it. To keep up with the faster moving air on top of the wing, the pressure underneath is greater, which is what lifts the bird in the air. All the feathers on a bird's body have different functions. The different groups of feathers are controlled by muscles. These muscles allow the feathers to perform different functions of flying. The tail - is very important for flight and maneuvering. While the bald eagle is soaring or gliding in flight, the tail feathers are spread in order to attain the largest surface area and increase the effect of up-drafts. The tail also helps to brake the eagle when landing and assists in stabilization during a controlled dive or swoop toward prey. The strength of the feathers and the follicles holding the feathers is very impressive while watching the tail move back and forth and up and down during maneuvers. The bird that I chose to focus on was the bald eagle. The eagle's wings are divided up into 3 types of feathers: primary, secondary, and covert. Covert feathers add thickness to the front of the wing so air moves faster over the top of the wing. Primary feathers can be spread out like fingers on a hand to reduce drag. Secondary feathers move up or down to control the amount of drag. The eagle's wings are large and powerful, without weighing it down. The shape of its wing is long and wide which allows the eagle to soar and glide. Broad wings allow the eagle to stay up in the air longer without pumping its wings. Thanks for watching!!!
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