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Nuclear Medicine

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by

Monet Slinowsky

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of Nuclear Medicine

62
ECG
bpm
Overview
-Originated in the 1950s

-Very well funded

-1/3 of equipment in hospitals
Brachytherapy
-Radioactive wires surround the tumor

-Beta radiation (from beta decay) destroys cancerous cells

-Effective, efficient, safe
Ongoing Research
-Developing better instrumentation

-Researching new radiopharmeceuticals

-Applying technology to different diseases:

-HIV
-Cancer
-Coronary artery disease
-Neurological diseases
Monet Slinowsky
Nuclear Medicine
Ionizing Radiation
-X-rays and gamma rays

-Enough energy to remove an electron
X-Rays
-Energy sent through patient

-Hard tissues absorb while soft tissues transmit

-Negative image of hard tissues

-CT scans

Imaging with Gamma Rays
Terminology!!
-Isotopes

-Nuclear radiation

-Gamma decay

-Radioisotopes
How it Works
-Patient given "radiotracer"

-Tracers attach to chemicals in the body

-Physiological information obtained
Tracers either...


A) Concentrate in certain organs


B) Travel through metabolic systems
B) Travel Through Metabolic Systems
Ex. Charting flow of blood through blood vessels

-Stress thallium test

-Detects clots/abnormalities etc.
A) Concentrate
Ex. Thyroid concentrates iodine

-Inject a radioisotope of iodine

-Detect thyroid abnormalities

-VERY good at detecting cancerous tumors


Safety?
-Patient slightly radioactive

-Expelled through digestive system

-Short half-lives

-Will damage developing fetus
SPECT
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
-Tracers emit gamma radiation

-Radiation is recorded

-Image is fuzzy
PET
Positron Emission Tomography
-Tracer decays by beta plus decay

-Positron annihilated by hitting electron in tissue

-Two gamma rays produced

-Camera finds pairs
Pros of Nuclear Medicine
-No need for exploratory surgery

-Clear images to diagnose disease

-Effective treatment of disease

-Non-invasive

-Painless
Cons of Nuclear Medicine
-Patient becomes radioactive

-Uncomfortable side effects

-Damage to fetus

-Environmental impact

-Potential danger
Full transcript