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Teaching Speaking

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eylul dogan

on 3 May 2015

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Transcript of Teaching Speaking

1. Conversational Discourse

Can you carry on a conversation reasonably competently?

*accomplish pragmatic goals through interactive discourse with the other speakers of the language

*Richards (1990:67) the conversation class is something of an enigma in a language teaching.

Techniques for teaching students conversational rules for topic nomination, maintaining a conversation, turn-taking, interruption and termination:

Sociolinguistic appropriateness,
styles of speech,
nonverbal communication,
conversational rules

phonological ,
lexical and
syntactic properties directly or indirectly

2.Teaching Pronunciation
Should a language program focus on tiny phonological details of language?
3. Accuracy and Fluency
Audiolingual;
Repetition drills were designed to familiarize students with the sound and structural patterns of the target language.

Fluency and accuracy are both important goals to pursue in
CLT.

Techniques should be
message oriented
(teaching language use) not
language oriented
( teaching language usage)
4. Affective Factors
The anxiety generated over the risks of blurting things out that are wrong, stupid or incomprehensible is the biggest obstacle in speaking.

Language Ego:
"You are what you speak"

"It is better to keep your mouth closed and let people think you are a fool than to open it and remove all doubt."(Mark Twain)






**provide kind of warm, embracing climate that encourages students to speak**


5. The Interactive Effect
David Nunan (1991b:47) :
"Interlocutor effect"
one learner's performance is always colored by that of the person (interlocutor) he or she is talking with.


"No matter how much you know , you can only explain as much as the listener can understand."
Teaching Speaking
Thank you!
Oral Communication Skills in Pedagogical Resource
1. Conversational Discourse
2. Teaching Pronunciation
3. Accuracy and Fluency
4. Affective Factors
5. The Interaction Effect
Do you speak English?
What are the types of Spoken Language
What Makes Speaking Difficult?
1.
Clustering
: Fluent speech is phrasal not word by word.

2.
Redundancy
: Make meaning clearer through the redundancy of language

3.
Reduced Forms
:Contradictions, elisions, reduced vowels.

4.
Performance Variables
: Um,uh, you know, I mean, well; thinking time for
hesistations, pauses, backtracking, corrections.

5.
Colloquial Language
: make sure students learn them.

6.
Rate of Delivery
: Help learners achieve an acceptable speed

7.
Stress, Rhythm, Interaction
: The stress-timed rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns convey important messages.

8.
Interaction
: the creativity of conversational negotiation
Micro-skills of Oral Communication
Types of Classroom Speaking Performance
1. Imitative
2. Intensive
3. Response
4. Transactional (dialogue)
5. Interpersonal (dialogue)
6. Extensive (monologue)
Principles for Designing Speaking Techniques
Focus on both FLUENCY & ACCURACY depending on your objective

Make sure your tasks have a linguistic (language-based) objective, and seize the opportunity to help students to perceive and use the ” building blocks of language.
Provide INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATING techniques

“Appeal to students’ ultimate goals and interests, to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence and autonomy … help them to see how the activity will benefit them.
Encourage the use of AUTHENTIC LANGUAGE in meaningful contexts

It takes energy and creativity to devise authentic contexts and meaningful interaction, but with the help of a storehouse of teacher resource ” materials, it can be done.
Provide APPROPRIATE FEEDBACK and correction

It is important that you take advantage of your knowledge of English to inject the kinds of corrective feedback that are ” appropriate for the moment.
Capitalize on the NATURAL LINK between speaking and listening

The two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in producing language are often initiated ” through comprehension.

Give students OPPORTUNITIES TO INITIATE oral communication

Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversations, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversations, and to change the subject.
Encourage the DEVELOPMENT OF SPEAKING STRATEGIES

asking for clarification (what?)

asking someone to repeat something (pardon me?)

using fillers (uh, I mean) to get time to process

using conversation maintenance cues (uh-huh, right, yeah, OK, Hmm)

getting someone’s attention (hey, say, so)

paraphrasing for structures one can’t produce

appealing for assistance from the interlocutor

using formulaic expressions

using mime and non-verbal expressions
Teaching Conversation
a. Conversation-Indirect (Strategy-Consciousness Raising)
b. Conversation-Direct ( Gambits)
c. Conversation-Transactional (Ordering From a Catalog)
d. Meaningful Oral Grammar Practice ( Modal Axulliary Would)
e. Individual Practice (Oral Dialogue Journals)
f. Other Interactive Techniques
Interviews
Guessing games
Jigsaw tasks
Ranking exercises
Discussions
Values clarification
Problem-solving activities
Role-play
Simulations

Teaching Pronunciation
1. Native Language:
Be familiar with the sound system of the learner's NL
2. Age:
"the younger the better"
3. Exposure:
intensity of exposure rather than the length of time
4. Innate Phonetic Ability:
having an "ear" for the language but awareness can be developed
5. Identity & Language Ego:
become aware not afraid of having a second identity
6. Motivation & Concern for good pronunciation:
intrinsic motivation is needed

Intonation:
Good? Delicious. More? Please.
Stress:
I'd like a red cotton dress. Not a blue one.
Meaninful Minimal Pairs:
This pen leaks. Then don't write with it.

SPEAKING
"The ability to speak a language is synonyms with knowing that language since speech is the most basic means of human communication. The most demanding skills." ( Bailey&Savage 1994:11)

"Oral production requires interaction of aural comprehension. Only in limited context we produce speaking without the participation of an interlocutor.Most of the speaking are directly and empirically observed by a test-taker’s listening skill."(Douglas Brown)

"Is one the most important skill but at the same time, one the most difficult to learn. Unlike reading or writing, speaking happen in a real time or context, it is usually presented by interaction, furthermore, when you speak, you cannot edit or revise or edit what you wish to say." (David Nunan)
It is challenging: Fluency speech contains
reduced forms, contractions, vowel reduction,elision.
In the form of conversations or dialogues
We don't limit students' attention to the whole picture even though the whole picture is important. The language students need to be shown the details of how to convey and negotiate the ever-elusive meanings of the language.
1. Imitative
2. Intensive
It's one step beyond imitative ones, it can be self-initiated or pair-work activity where learners are "going over" certain forms of language.
3. Response
Short sufficient replies and they do not to extend into dialogues.

How are you today?
Fine thanks, and you?

What was the main idea this text?
It was about sharing workload.
4. Transactional (dialogue)
Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended form of responsive language.

What was the main idea this text?
It was about sharing workload.
What kind of worklaod?
Answering the phones, taking notes during the meeting, making interviews...
Do you also share the chores at home?
Yes, I usually go shopping for my mum.
5. Interpersonal (dialogue)
a casual register
colloquial language
emotionally change language
slangs
clipsis
sarcasm
a covert agenda


6. Extensive (monologue)
Oral reports, summaries or short speeches at intermediate or advanced level,

formal, deliberative, planned
What's involved in speaking?

Real time
Linear
Word-by-word
Utterance-by-utterance
Interlocutor
Spontaneity
Distinguish types of speaking
Making oneself understood
Managing interaction
Opening and closing
responding appropriately in fixed routine
Taking turns
Topic management
Planned&Unplanned

Interpersonal

to promote social relationship

Transactional
to convey propositional or factual information

unfamiliar&familiar
report back to what was said to confirm or reject
provide relevant expressions
speculate about causes or consequences
express ideas
handle interjections
answer questions
use appropriate register
provide personal opinion
weigh advantage and disadvantages
Is drilling a legitimate part of the communicative language classroom?
"loosen tongue" with selected grammatical forms in an appropriate text

Keep them simple, short, snappy
Make sure students know why they are doing drill
Limit them to phonology or grammar points
Make sure they ultimately lead to communicative goals
Don't overuse them
reinforces to speaker's responses
When to treat an error?
Which errors need feedback?
What is mistake?
What is error?
Direct approach:Micro-skills ,rules,strategies

Indirect Approach: Acquiring conversation, using language
- What is said in Look Ahead?

developing at the same time knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, functional language and communicative skills.

-
What is meant by contextual appropriacy?

The message depends on the setting, the relative status of the participants, and their role relationship.

Ex-I am opening the window, ok?
Do you mind if I open the window?

- What is meant by fluency?

responding coherently within the turns of the conversation, linking words and phrases, using intelligible pronunciation and appropriate intonation, and doing all of this without undue hesitation.
interpreting and assessing the meaning of what is heard and formulating appropriate responses.

What are the issues in teaching the phonological aspects of English?

1- Choosing a model for pronunciation teaching
2- Taking a holistic or atomistic approach
a combination of features such as rhythm, stress, pitches, volume, pace and voice setting indicates attitude or mood.
3- Selecting practice according to student need

How can we make accuracy-based practice meaningful?

The communicative classroom will need to expose learners to input which they can attend to and opportunities to produce output in more controlled activities.

Various labels have been suggested for this type of activity: perhaps skill-getting, pre-communicative, accuracy based and form-focused are the best known.

a) Contextualized practice
making clear the link between linguistic form and communicative function.
finding a situation in which a structure is commonly used.

I’m opening the window. What are you doing? Are you looking at your book?

b) Personalizing language
enabling students to express their own ideas, feelings, preferences, and opinions.
making language more memorable
motivating in interpersonal situations.

c) Building awareness of social use of language

How can we design and evaluate fluency based activity?
- Free discussion
Interests, opinions, histories, and experiences, Here the students are invited to give opinions, agree or disagree, state preferences and make comparisons.Encourage students to use the language needed to sustain conversation over a period of time.
- Role play
from simple dialogues prompted by specific information on role cards to more complex simulations which pass through a number of stages,in pairs or groups rather than one group acting in front of the class.
- Gap activities
Negotiation of meaning and the conversational adjustments which push students to more accurate output. A requirement for information exchange,

- The efficacy of different activity types
Finding different solutions to the problems in an information gap task.

- Providing a range and balance of activities in a course
An initial dimension to consider when selecting activities is the relationship between the range chosen and the situations in which learners will need to function. Another consideration is to find a balance between practice activities which are monologue and those which involve two speakers or more.

These questions might provide a basis for evaluation:
1- Participation within the group 2- Complexity of interaction 3- Opportunities for management of interaction 4- Degree of simulation required 5- Structure of activity 6- Motivation
What kind of policy can we develop to correct of the Speech Errors ?
- Noting down each individual’s main errors on separate cards giving these to them for reflection.

- Recording the activity and asking students to listen and see if they can identify and correct their own errors

- Making a note of key errors

- Noting down examples of errors

-Scaffold
a. don't interfere too much
b. offer useful language feedback
c. help them to construct conversation
Scaffolding Techniques
nod,eye-contact,repeat an unclear word,repeat the last word,pick on a key element,ask conversation-oiling questions,ask brief questions, give some words r pronunciation
How do speakers manage interaction?
Speaking activities are probably the most demanding for students and teachers in terms of the factors involved.
Trying to produce language in front of other students can generate high levels of anxiety.
Students may feel that they are presenting themselves at a much lower level of cognitive ability than they really possess.
Classroom management is also a key issue given the complex structure of some communication activities.

According to Jim Scrivener some common communicative activities:


1. Picture difference tasks
2. Group planning tasks
3. List sequencing tasks
4. Pyramid discussions
5. Board games
6. Puzzles and problems
Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi
How to organize a discussion class
Topic and cues
Structure talk
Avoid the talk-talk loop
Open questions
Play devil's advocate
Key to get a good discussion going
Frame the discussion well
Preparation time
Don't interrupt the flow
Specific problems are more productive than general ones
Role cards
Buzz groups
Break the roles
Different Kinds of Speaking
Genre
Speech-Act
Stages in a speaking lesson
1. Set task
2. Plan the speaking
3. Rehearse the speaking
4. Do the task
5. Feedback / Review the success
6. Add / Do / Revise
7. Redo the task
**Exposure to example
References
Scrivener, J. Speaking (2003) OUP
Celce-Murcia M. Speaking (1991) OUP
Brown, D. Teaching Speaking (2000) Longman
Hedge, T.
Speaking
(1988) OUP
Harmer, J.
How to teach speaking
(1988) Longman
Harmer, J.
Speaking
(2007) Pearson&Longman
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