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Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Transcript of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
To get energy, we burn the carbon in...
We need a bridge
to sustainable energy
What about me?
You're not really there yet
Water can easily be condensed
CO2 and N2 are very hard to separate
So what to do now?
Remove the carbon from the fuel
Only H2O and N2 in the flue gas (smoke)
Remove the nitrogen from the air
Only H2O and CO2 in the flue gas
Separate the gases anyway
Physical properties of air
Pressure swing separation
Chemical Looping Combustion
N2 + O2
C + H
CO2 + H2O
Why don't we just do this then?
Up to 8-12%-points
That means up to ~35% more fuel needed!
Investment cost increase
Hard to say how much, but maybe 50%
Well, it actually needs to be transported first
CO2 is non-toxic,
so I can eat it!
Stored in porous rock
So why don't we just do this then?
Not in my/anyones back yard
What if the rock cracks?
CO2 may solidify over the years (100s to 1000s of years)
CO2 may dissolve in in-situ fluids (e.g. brine)
CO2 will migrate into pores
Virtually no risk for CO2-fountains
Many sites will probably leak, but very slowly
Leaks are not toxic
Types of storage include:
Old oil and gas fields
Unmineable coal formations
Shale and basalt formations
IThere was gas there for millions of years already
There was gas there for millions of years already
Impermeable layer, "caprock"
No hole is drilled for injection
What if this becomes mineable in the future?
Not comparable to nuclear waste storage
For how long...?
Will it be better/cheaper to invest more in renewables?
Is it ethical to use all finite resources?
Most often by use of chemical sorbents,
but membranes are also a possibility
Steam + Fuel