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Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

CCS and sustainability Pros and cons Technological overview
by

Jesper Aronsson

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

Biomass
To get energy, we burn the carbon in...
Natural gas
Coal
Oil
We need a bridge
to sustainable energy
C
O
O
C
O
O
C
O
O
C
O
O
C
O
O
C
O
O
What about me?
Well, sun...
You're not really there yet
C
O
O
C
O
O
C
O
O
CCS
Capture
Storage
C
C
H
I
I
78% N2
21% O2
1% Others
Fossil fuel
Air
N2
CO2
H2O
Gas separation
Water can easily be condensed
CO2 and N2 are very hard to separate
+
So what to do now?
Pre-combustion
Remove the carbon from the fuel
Only H2O and N2 in the flue gas (smoke)
Problem solved!
Oxy-fuel
Remove the nitrogen from the air
Only H2O and CO2 in the flue gas
Problem solved!
Post-combustion
Separate the gases anyway
Problem solved!
Physical properties of air
Cryogenic separation
Pressure swing separation
Chemical Looping Combustion
Air
N2 + O2
N2
Fuel
C + H
CO2 + H2O
Metal
Metal
oxide
Oxidation
Reduction
Why don't we just do this then?
Part 1
Efficiency penalty
Up to 8-12%-points
That means up to ~35% more fuel needed!
Investment cost increase
Hard to say how much, but maybe 50%
Well, it actually needs to be transported first
Pipeline
Or boat
CO2 is non-toxic,
so I can eat it!
CO2
Stored in porous rock
So why don't we just do this then?
Part 2
NIMBY/NIABY
Not in my/anyones back yard
What if the rock cracks?
CO2 may solidify over the years (100s to 1000s of years)
CO2 may dissolve in in-situ fluids (e.g. brine)
CO2 will migrate into pores
Virtually no risk for CO2-fountains
Many sites will probably leak, but very slowly
Leaks are not toxic
Types of storage include:
Saline aquifers
Old oil and gas fields
Unmineable coal formations
Shale and basalt formations
IThere was gas there for millions of years already
I
I
There was gas there for millions of years already
Impermeable layer, "caprock"
No hole is drilled for injection
What if this becomes mineable in the future?
Not comparable to nuclear waste storage
Transient solution
For how long...?
Renewables
Will it be better/cheaper to invest more in renewables?
Future generations
Is it ethical to use all finite resources?
Most often by use of chemical sorbents,
but membranes are also a possibility
Air
Steam + Fuel
Full transcript