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Kibera - Case Study
Transcript of Kibera - Case Study
1982-2002 – urban population increased on average of 6.3% a year – double than its national population growth.
Kenya urban population will double between 2005 and 2015
Rapid populations growth, for example, in 1950, Kenya had a population of 5.4 million, by 1995 it had risen to 28.3 million.
Modernization of technology, in agriculture, this signifies that fewer workers were needed on the farms, leading many to move to the cities in search of opportunities. Rapid rate of urbanization – Kenya since 1950 Nairobi biggest attractions to rural migrants
Rural to urban migration is happening on a massive scale due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas. Push Factors Pull factors
Droughts More jobs at better pay
Declining Agriculture Improved education
Inter - Tribal Clashes Improved Health care
Lack of Resources Effects of Rapid Urbanization Due to urbanisation being quick Kenyan Gov cant provide – basic housing needs – space to live in, essential services, jobs, 60% of population lives in 5% of the city's land
Growth of informal settlements – lack of resources to invest in essential infrastructure + pace of urbanisation The rapid growth of Kibera population has led to a severe shortage of housing. thousands of people have been forced to construct their own homes from scrap materials such as wood, corrugated iron and metals. These areas of temporary accommodation are known as shanty towns. The conditions associated with shanty towns are very poor. Often families have to share one tap, there is no sewerage provision, disease is common and many people are unemployed. Shanty towns are located on the edge of most major African cities. They are located here for a number of reasons. Firstly, this is the only available land to build on within the city limits. Secondly, industry is located on the edge of the cities. Many people need jobs therefore they locate close to factories. Kibera is Africa’s largest slum with 700,000 people living in 1.5 square miles. All slums hosts 60% of Nairobi's 3 million population. Kibera is situated 7km south-west of Nairobi Kibera Nairobi The social differences can be seen where the slum is joined by the golf course (right picture). The contrast in conditions are drastic. The golf course has irrigated greens whereas the people living in Kibera’s slum barely have enough clean water to survive. This means that over 85% of people there live in poverty
The slum in Kibera has a population density of 200,000 people per sq km. Nairobi 4,509 people per sq km. 6% of all landlords own 25% of all rooms in Kibera. This creates a high degree of ownership concentration.
Landlords are charging high prices for low quality housing. E.g households in Kibera pay $11 a month, this is 12% of their total income for the month.
Only 22% of households in Kibera has electricity.
And less than 20% have access to piped water, this is in comparison to 71% of people in Nairobi.
Average monthly wage after tax in Nairobi is $419.59, compared to $92 in kibera. Shows economic inequality. http://www2.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/pdf/WP/WP98.pdf Economic Well-Being 4/5 residents do not live in Kibera by choice
Poverty gives no option
Only 44% of households have regular income
80% of regular earners are poor to very poor
Daily Income (US$) % of households
>15 24 Social Conditions
Most popular jobs: selling vegetables, second hand clothes, kiosks and hair salons Housing Main housing problems: Poor roofing, poor walls, overcrowding and high rents.
Mud is the most common building material
only 1% of houses are built from brick or stone
43% houses have floors made from natural earth.
Kibera is one of the most densely populated areas in the world (exceed to 90,000 persons per square kilometre)
Overcrowding leads to ill-health and disease spreading. Social Conditions Does have a range of services and amenities such as schools, health facilities, govt. offices, water points and telephones.
Most of this is either inadequate or in poor condition
Roads and pathways made from natural earth and cars cannot reach many houses Environmental 83% households have water within 100m
However, this can be very costly
Poorest rely on Ngong river for water
Few households have proper toilets
General conditions are very poor
Dirty water results in illness through mosquitos also attracted by faeces etc. Health Poverty, lack of sanitation and solid waste management all contribute to ill-health among Kibera’s residents.
Malaria, AIDS, typhoid, TB, and diarrhoea all common illnesses.
Malaria is the number 1 killer disease in Africa. Affecting 20 million in Kenya.
In Kenya AIDS is responsible for 500 deaths a day.
Diarrhoea will remain a problem until sanitary arrangements improve.
Infant mortality in Kibera as high as 200 in every 1000. Services 60% of Nairobi live in slums with an increasing population of 200000 a year.
They have huge problems of providing adequate services in Nairobi, Kibera and surrounding areas.
There were no services at all in the past as the government refused to recognise informal settlements and as such provided no public service in these areas at all.
Until in 1996 they realised this wasn’t working and slums were growing faster than ever so the started working with them.
They built a new water distribution service, in Kibera in 2000. However the environment and sanitation scheme is finished but not yet in place. It is supported by the United Nations at a total cost of $11 billion.
The plan provides a coherent approach to development.
There have been a number of upgrades in Kibera;
Infrastructure – sewage system, water system and sanitation, access roads, electricity and street lighting.
Social – schools, health centres, community services, recreation.
Housing – security of tenure, new housing, improvements.
Waste management – Bin collection.
Employment – established markets, shops, credit schemes. Video showing social issues in Kibera - up to 2.30 Quick Introduction of Kibera