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Transcript of Ancient Greece
By: Hayat Shefaw, Sameenah Burt, Reem Saifudin, Mona Ebrahim. and Miriam Merouan
Religion, Philosophy, and the Arts
Life in Public
At Home in Athens
Slavery in Ancient Greece
Visual and Dramatic Arts
Religious Beliefs in Ancient Greece
Greek Science and Philosophy
The Geography of Greece
Governing Ancient Greece
The Rise of Greek Civilization
Bronze Age people called Minoans lived on the island of Crete. It is surrounded by the waters of the Aegean and Mediterranean Sea. The Minoans developed an advanced culture.
After the Mycenaeans came to power, mainland and island cultures blended. Later the Mycenaeans controlled the Aegean Sea and parts of the Mediterranean. Greek myths tell stories of the Trojan war.
After the war, civilization in Greece collapsed. Greece had Dark Ages from 1100 B.C. to 750 B.C.. Writing wasn't invented yet so they had to depend on word of mouth to keep traditions.
Gods had human characteristics. They had great power, and were immortal. Zeus ruled at the top of Greece's highest mountain, Mt. Olympus. Achilles fought during the Trojan War.
People often seek refuge from their gods for a sign or advice. The Greeks visited oracles. Sometimes advice came thru dreams. Oracles of various gods were located throughout Greece.
One of the first Philosophers, Thales believed the water was the basic material of the world. Some philosophers thought Sophists were interested in winning debates then speaking the truth.
During the Golden Age, many philosophers taught in Athens. The ideas of three men Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle had a lasting affect on modern learning. People discussed wisdom and goddesses with people of Athens. Socrates was brought to trial. He was accused for misleading people. Socrates death caused Plato to mistrust democracy. Plato founded a school in Athens called the Academy. He taught a student named Aristotle. He believed that reason should guide knowledge. He then later founded his own school, the Lyceum.
Many Athenian men went to the Agora. There they heard vendors. The streets were lined up with shops.
Temples and Government buildings lined the Agora. A board displayed notices and new laws and up coming court cases.
Many free people were enslaved when they were captured by armies during wars. A large number of slaves were foreigners.
Enslaved people did many kinds of work. Some did works on farms. Others dug sliver and other metals in the mines. Some were skilled artisans. Household slaves cooked and served food. They had the easiest life. The slaves who worked in the mines suffered the most. Some slaves were able to buy their freedom, a lot of them weren't able to. The hard work of slaves meant that the free citizens of Athens could afford to pursue art, education, and public services.
Early Greek Civilization:
Mountains are the major landforms of Greece. Only about one- fifth of Greece is good for growing crops. Greeks became traders and sailors.
Some ancient Greeks lived on real islands.
Others thought they did. Greeks had different communities and customs. Most of them were to busy fighting and forgot they shared the same heritage.
Map of Ancient Greece
In around 750 B.C., villages throughout Greece formed into cities near an acropolises. As these cities developed over time they eventually became Greek city-states.
Chieftains and kings were the earliest rulers of these city-states, who were military leaders. Later on, by the end of Greek's Dark Ages most of the city-states were ruled by aristocrats.
Greeks sailed to foreign ports, trading olive oil, marble, and other products that made them richer. Middle class Greeks could not afford to equip themselves with horses and chariots for war. On the other hand, they were able to equip themselves with armor, swords and spears.
During the Golden Age, Athens grew rich from trade and from silver mined by slaves. Athens also collected tribute. The tribute paid to Athens added wealth. About 30 years during Athens Golden Age, Pericles was the most powerful man in Athenian politics. He always tried to act in the best interest of his city.
The Golden Age of Athens
Private Homes were plain and not pretty. Some homes had bathrooms. Ancient Greeks had simple foods. Most Athenians ate little meat because there was little space or extra money to raise cattle.Wealthy families ate meat only during religious festivals. Most people in the Agora's were men. The women usually stayed at home. They couldn't take part it politics or vote. Women directed people.
Daily Life in Athens
Living in Sparta
The Persians Invade
Conflict and the Athenian Empire
Sparta and Athens
Sparta devoted to war. Sparta seemed to be similar to other greek cities. The changes turned Sparta into a powerful war machine. Sparta conquered land all around it and turned their people to helots. Community leaders examined newborn infants. At the age of seven, boys were sent to military camps to learn how to fight. No one expected the girls to be soldiers. Spartan women had freedom.
Cyrus the Great had founded the Persian Empire. Cyrus and later rulers then expanded the empire.
A huge force of a thousand Persians landed in Greece itself. The Persians outnumbered them by at least two to one. By one account, Athenians had killed 6,400 Persians and lost only 192 of their own men.
At first, the allies had paid tribute to Athens for protection. Then later Athens used this money for building the Parthenon and other projects. In 431 B.C. allies of Sparta and Athens fought. And the Peloponnesian War begun.
The Hellenistic Age
The Spread of Greek Culture
Phillip planned to attack Persia. But before he forefilled his plan, he got assassinated. Alexander(his son) became king.
One of Alexander's first actions was to invade Persia. His energy and military helped him succeed. After many years of fighting, his army got exhausted. Alexander died young.
When Alexander took over the land he tried not to change their cultures. Cities of the Hellenistic world were modeled after Greek cities. One of the greatest Hellenistic cities was Alexandria in Egypt. Over the years it became famous. Alexandria was the learning capitol of the Greek world.
Mathematics and science also flourished at Alexandria. Euclid's work helped explain the qualities of figures such as squares, angles, triangles, cubes, and cones. In Hellenistic times many scholars knew the Earth was round. A scholar named Eratosthenes calculated the distance around Earth.
The Acropolis, the religious center of Athens had been destroyed in 480 B.C., during a war. The builders of the Acropolis brought Greece to its highest point. The great statue of Athena disappeared long ago. The goal of Greek art was to present images of perfection in a balanced and orderly way. Athenians wrote Dramas. This was during the Golden Age. They became popular all over the Greek world. Most of the famous Greek dramas were tragedies. Between a play a chorus chanted or sang poems. Euripides, Aeschylus, and Sophocles were very important authors of tragedies. Comic writers also were in dramatic festivals.
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