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Indo-European Language Tree

English Language Unit 2
by

Teria Badic

on 13 July 2014

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Transcript of Indo-European Language Tree

French
French is an official language in 29 countries. It is an official language of all United Nations agencies and of a large number of international organisations, including the European Union. It's spoken in countries such as France, Belgium, Switzerland and Mauritius.
Irish
Irish (Gaeilge) originated in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a rather larger group. Around the 21st century, there was an estimated amount of 20,000 to 80,000 native speakers. Nowadays, there are many Irish speakers abroad, particularly in the United States and Canada.
Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic (sometimes just called Gaelic), is a Celtic language native to Scotland. Since 2005, Gaelic has been an official language in Scotland. Gaelic is not an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. The 'traditional' view is that Gaelic language was brought to Scotland in the 4th century, by settlers from Ireland.
The Gaelic alphabet: A (Ailm) B (Beith) C (Coll) D (Dair) E (Eadha) F (Fearn) G (Gort) H (Uath) I (Iogh) L (Luis) M (Muin) N (Nuin) O (Oir) P (Peithe) R (Ruis) S (Suil) T (Teine) U (Ur).
Approximately 414 million people speak Spanish as a native language. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, and it is used as an official language by the European Union. From the last decades of the 20th century, the study of Spanish as a foreign language has grown significantly. The Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin (colloquial Latin). Spanish alphabet: A (a) B (be) C (ce) D (de) E (e) F (efe) G (ge) H (hache) I (i) J (jota) K (ka) L (ele) M (eme) N (ene) Ñ (eñe) O (o) P (pe) Q (cu) R (ere) S (ese) T (te) U (u) V (ve) W (uve doble) X (equis) Y (ie griega) Z (zeta).
Latvian
Latvian (also sometimes referred as Lettish), is the official language in Latvia. There are about 1.2 million native Latvian speakers in Latvia and 100 thousand abroad. Altogether, 1.9 million, or 79% of the population of Latvia, speak Latvian. Of those, 1.2 million use it as their primary language at home.The use of the Latvian language in various areas of social life in Latvia is increasing. Latvian is a Baltic language and is most closely related to Lithuanian, although the two are not mutually intelligible.
Greek
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor and Cyprus. It has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. There are around 13 million native speakers and it is an official language in Greece and Cyprus.
Indo-European Language Tree
Celtic
Italic
Romance
(Latin)
Germanic
West
North
Hellenic
Ancient Greek
Baltic
Lithuanian
Slavic
Russian
Serbo-Croatian
Indo-Iranian
Old Persian
Sanskrit
Armenian
Albanian
Spanish
Dutch
German
Norwegian
Swedish
Persian
Hindi
Punjabi
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of most of the population of the Netherlands, and about sixty percent of the populations of Belgium. Dutch is closely related to German and English and is said to be between them. Dutch shares with German a similar word order, having a grammatical gender, and a largely Germanic vocabulary. Old Dutch developed in the Early Middle Ages from around the 5th to the 12th century.
German is a West Germanic language. It derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A number of words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer from French and English. German is written using the Latin alphabet. German is a native language by about 100 million people, making it the most widely spoken native language in the European Union and one of the major languages. It is an official language in a few countries including: Austria, Switzerland, Luxemburg and Belgium.
Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is the official language. Norwegian formed from Scandinavian along with Swedish and Danish. These three languages were spoken by Vikings. Viking traders spread the language across Europe and into Russia, making Old Norse (Old Norwegian) one of the most widespread languages for a time.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken by approximately 10 million people worldwide. It is an official language in Sweden and Finland. Along with the other North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages by numbers of speakers. There are 9.2 million native speakers from 2012 and there are now approximately 10 million native speakers nowadays. Swedish alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Å, Ä, Ö.
Lithuanian is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 3.2 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania and about 200,000 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language. Lithuanian alphabet: A Ą B C Č D E Ę Ė F G H I Į Y J K L M N O P R S Š T U Ų Ū V Z Ž.
Russian is a Slavic language spoken primarily in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It is also the largest native language in Europe, with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the 8th most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
Serbo-Croatian also called Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro. Serbo-Croatian was established in the mid-19th century by a joint effort of Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established. Serbian alphabet: А Б Ц Ч Ћ Д Џ ђ Е Ф Г Х И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Ш Т У В З Ж.
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages and the only South-Western Iranian language. It is primarily spoken in Iran (Persia), and as a different dialect in Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958 for political reasons). There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. For centuries Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia by the various empires based in the regions. This language is native to Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Russia, Uzbekistan etc.
Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindustani is the native language of most people living in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand etc. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the official languages of India. Hindi is the fourth-most-widely spoken language in the world, but this includes not only Hindu speakers of Hindustani, but also people who identify as native speakers of related languages who consider their speech to be a dialect of Hindi.
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language in the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people who inhabit the historical Punjab region of Pakistan and India. It is the only tonal language among the Indo-Aryan languages. Punjabi is the fourth most spoken language in England and Wales, third most spoken in Canada.The language also has a significant presence in the United Arab Emirates, United States of America, Saudi Arabia, and Australia.
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia and the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. It has historically been spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands and today is widely spoken in Armenia. Armenian has its own unique script, the Armenian alphabet, invented in 405–6 AD. Linguists classify Armenian as an independent branch in the Indo-European family tree. Armenian shares a number of major innovations with Greek and some linguists group these two languages together with the Indo-Iranian family. It is a recognised minority language in countries like: Lebanon, U.S.A, Georgia, Ukraine, Romania and Cyprus.
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro, Bosnian and Herzegovina and Serbia. Albanian is an independent branch in the Indo-European language tree, but it could be fitted into the Slavic part due to Albania, Serbia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Slovenia all being one single country called Yugoslavia. They all had different languages but some similar words, and different dialects.
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