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The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the rise of MLK
Transcript of The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the rise of MLK
Later in life she became a secretary for the Montgomery section of the NAACP.
As a member of the NAACP, she was assigned to racial cases in order to help with investigations. It was during this time that she boarded a bus on Thursday December 1, 1955 and started a movement that would forever change history.
When a white man got on the already full bus, Rosa and the other black people in her row were asked to move to the back. While the others obeyed, Rosa refused and was arrested. She was fined 10 dollars and found guilty, but she later appealed.
Her arrest is what triggered the 13 month bus boycott of Montgomery city buses. Rosa Parks Martin Luther King Jr.
In 1945 he became pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church.
He was President of the Montgomery Improvement Association.
He was the spokesman of the boycott.
During the boycott he was arrested and his house was bombed several times. Martin Luther King Jr. continued
King's strategy involved the mobilization of black churches and appeals for white support.
His primary tactic, however, was the use of Gandhi's non-violent resistance.
Jo Ann Robinson of the Women's Political Council suggested that King be the spokesman of the boycott. Events Leading up to the Boycott While Before Rosa Parks' arrest, there were others who stood up to segregation on city buses.
The Women's Political Council (WCP) founded in 1946 used women to fight segregation and Jim Crow in Montgomery.
15 year old Claudette Colvin and 18 year old Mary Louise Smith were both arrested for refusing to give up their seats to white men on city buses. They were involved in the WCP.
In 1944 Jackie Robinson, the first black major league baseball player, was court martialed for also refusing to move to the back of the bus. During the Boycott.... The End In the end, the boycott was and still is regarded as the first large scale demonstration against racial segregation in the US.
It officially ended on December 20, 1956.
Segregation on city buses was outlawed. During the 13 month boycott of all city buses, black churches raised money and organized carpools to support those who were boycotting.
Many white people (mostly housewives) would help to drive their black maids to work and back.
Black taxi drivers would charge 10 cents for rides, the same price as the buses.
Walking was the primary mode of transportation for most people. " We are determined in Montgomery to work and fight until justice runs down like water and righteousness like a mighty stream."
- Martin Luther King Jr. (Dec. 5th, 1955) Rosa Parks is fined $10 for violation of a state law requiring racial segregation on city buses. She did not testify. Her Attorney Fred D. Gray signed a $100 appeal bond for his client. E. D. Nixon, a former state president of the NAACP also signed the bond. Gray had entered the plea of innocent for his client. Parks did not speak during the hearing.
City prosecutor Eugene Loe called City Lines bus driver J.F. Blake to the stand to open the city's case. Blake explained that Parks had refused to move to the back of the bus after he has requested her and and several others to move to the back to make room for white passengers.
Loe moved to amend the charge against Parks, changing the charge from a violation of the city ordinance to violation of the state law. The state law sets forth as unlawful and failure for a person to comply with the assignment or re-assignment order of a bus driver.
Montgomery City Lines Bus Manager J. H. Bagley estimates that about 90% of black people were refusing to ride the bus in protest to the hearing.
Fred Daniel, 19 of 1646 Hall St., was arrested and jailed on the charge of disorderly conduct. When a black woman tried to board a city bus he pulled her away from the bus.
All black taxi cab operators in the city allegedly told their drivers to only charge 10 cents a person from the hours of 4 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. to 11p.m. to make the bus boycott more effective.
There is to be a large meeting of black people at the Holy Street Baptist Church to to discuss the bus boycott. Circulars were distributed in black residential districts urging the boycott in protest of the arrest of Rosa Parks. The church's pastor Rev. A. W. Williams said the meeting would be open to whites as well as blacks. Old Article New Article The civil rights movement did not start with the March on Washington in 1963 with 200,000 people listening t Martin Luther King and his "I have a dream" speech. It began with smaller movements such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
The aims of the Boycott were modest and changed as it went on. On December 1, 1995 after Rosa Parks was arrested, Jo Ann Robinson, with Park's consent, called for a one-day bus boycott.
Not many people believed they could do it, but the success of the one-day boycott gave confidence to the people of Montgomery. With this confidence they continued the actions, which lasted until the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the lower court ruling that fount the city's segregation law was unconstitutional.
It took the protestors of Montgomery a year to win the struggle to desegregate buses. It was a year of constant attack from the KKK and other racist organizations.
What began as a small local campaign became a determined mass campaign against Jim Crow and segregation in the south and racism throughout the country.