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History of Sports Management

Chapter 1 - McGraw Hill
by

Aaron Jones

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of History of Sports Management

The North American society for Sport Management (NASSM) and the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) Task Force on Sport Management corroborate a rapid growth in this profession. NASSM was established to promote, stimulate, and encourage research, scholarly writing, and professional development in the area of sport management. The Task Force focuses on curricular needs. The Journal of Sport Management is the major resource for disseminating significant knowledge in this field. Chapter Summary Negative results from an expanding field
Supply of graduates has exceeded demand
Depressed salaries
Increased competition for available jobs

Positive results
Only the most qualified students are hired

Colleges and universities have upgraded curricula and student experience to enhance their competitiveness in the job market

Quality of graduates has been increased Positive and Negative Research

Excellent journals now exist

Quality of published research has increased

More doctoral students have joined the profession

Development of new sports scholars needs to be a focus in the new millennium Future Growth Professionally – administrator have evolved from volunteers and part-time administrators to full-time university-trained professionals


Disciplinary – embraced as a distinct, legitimate academic subject and unique field of inquiry Future Growth The sports management profession will become legitimate when graduates of sports management programs are able to

demonstrate the knowledge necessary to be successful in the marketplace

able to perform the functions expected of a manager

qualify for advancement through the ranks of an organization Future of Sport Management as an Academic Program It is a multidisciplinary field of study requiring the cooperation of several disciplines

Business administration (management)

Physical education
“sport studies”
“exercise and sport sciences” Curriculum Today the focus is on foundation areas of study with emphasis on

Sport management courses
Application areas that build on foundation subject matter
Areas specific to the sport industry
Field experiences Curriculum
Historically, sport management has had a strong physical education orientation. Curriculum
Trends in the United States

One out of ten people in the U.S. is working in the leisure industry

One-third of the nations land is devoted to leisure

Americans spend one-third of their time and income on leisure pursuits Sport Management Today and in the Future
Specialized areas are growing as faculty increase and develop specialized areas of research


Some day there may be colleges of sport management Sport Management Today and in the Future Curricula areas

Management in sport

Ethics in sport

Marketing in sport

Legal aspects of sport

Social and behavioral dimensions in sport

Finance in sport Sport Management Today and in the Future
Most programs today
average two full-time faculty
while a few have five or more Sport Management Today and in the Future NASPE Cabinet approved the standards in 1992

Joint task force also developed a protocol for evaluating programs

adopted a “voluntary program review” procedure rather than an “accreditation process”

May 1993 – first NASPE-NASSM Sport Management Curriculum Standards and Program Review Process was published

The Sport Management Program Review Council (SMPRC) was created to govern the process (1994) NASPE – NASSM Joint Task Force Formed to develop less limited curricular standards that could be endorsed jointly by NASPE and NASSM

Included five members from each association

Tasks
Develop standards to shape the preparation of future sports management programs

Investigate the feasibility of accrediting sport management curricula – incentive for institutions to upgrade their respective programs NASPE – NASSM Joint Task Force Drafted and disseminated curricular guidelines to directors of sports management programs


Final document approved by the NASPE Cabinet in 1987 as NASPE’s official curricular guidelines


Published as Guidelines for Programs Preparing Undergraduate and Graduate Students Careers in Sport Management (Brassie, 1989a) 1986 NASPE Task Force Three agenda items identified

Curricula guidelines

Student guidelines for selecting programs

A directory of college programs preparing professionals in sports management 1986 NASPE Task Force NASPE – and association of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD)

Task force made up of five professors and four practitioners

Purpose – identify ways to avoid duplication of services offered by NASSM 1986 NASPE Task Force Sport and Recreation Law Association (SRLA)
Started in 1987

Known as the Society for the Study of Legal Aspects of Sport and Physical Activity until 2003

Focuses on the legal aspect of sport

Hosts an annual scholarly conference

Publishes the Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport Four professional Associations in North America National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)

Sport Marketing Association (SMA)
Newest academic association in the United States

Focuses on content area within sport management – sport marketing

Initiated in November 2002 by sport marketing professors and scholars

Held its first conference in Gainesville, Florida in November 2003 Four professional Associations in North America North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM)
Established in 1985 to promote, stimulate, and encourage study, research, scholarly writing, and professional development in sport management
It is the successor of the Sports Management Arts and Science Society (SMARTS) which was conceived by the faculty at the University of Massachusetts
Focus on theory, applications, and practice of management specifically related to sport, exercise (fitness), dance, and play.
Holds an annual conference
Sponsors the Journal of Sport Management (JSM) – published since January 1987 which has become the major resource for disseminating significant knowledge in the field Four professional Associations in North America Decreasing demand for physical education teachers

Increasing need for personnel in the commercial sport sector
100 million people using driving ranges in Japan
Requires personnel with exceptional management skills

Management of spectator sports also increasing in importance Japanese developments Asian Association for Sports Management
European Association for Sports Management
Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand
Korean Association of Sports Management
Similar associations in
Taiwan
Japan
Italy
South Africa
France International sports management associations Slower to develop than North America

International community looks to North America for developments as a paradigm

Faculty in many countries look to North America for
models of curriculum
course content
textbooks
journals
cirriculum standards International sport management American programs are more applied in nature focusing on
Collegiate & professional sports
Facility management
Health and fitness club management
Canadian programs are more theoretical in nature focusing on
Historical and cultural perspectives
Physical activity
Sociological dimensions
Physiological and biochemical aspects Differences in American and Canadian Programs 1980
10 Undergraduate
9 Master’s
2 Doctoral

1988
6 Undergraduate
9 Master’s
2 Doctoral Canadian Programs
1993 – 201 programs including six doctoral programs identified by NASPE


Over 200 programs existed in the United States by the end of the millennium


a growth of over 5000% over a 30 year span EARLY EVOLUTION
1988 – 109 colleges and universities with programs in sport management

51 undergraduate degrees
33 master’s level
25 both levels

Published in the May 23, 1988 issue of Sports, Inc. EARLY EVOLUTION
By 1985 – grown to 83 programs in the United States

40 undergraduate
32 graduate
11 at both levels

Published by National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) EARLY EVOLUTION
1971 – University of Massachusetts - second master’s program established


1980 – 20 colleges and universities in the United States offer graduate programs in sports management EARLY EVOLUTION Sports Administration Program at Ohio University
Master’s level program started at University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

In 1957, James G. Madison, a physical education professor, prepared the curriculum at the encouragement of Walter O’Malley, then president of the Brooklyn Dodgers

While the curriculum was never implemented, it formed the basis for the program at Ohio University EARLY EVOLUTION
Early evolution Florida Southern University – 1949-1959
Approved by the State Department of Education
Program was titled “Baseball Business Administration”
Curriculum had nine content areas including
“Tickets and Tax Laws”
“Legal Responsibility and Insurance”
“Promotion and Public Relations”
“Park Maintenance”
“Finances, Accounting, and Payroll Systems”

Ohio University - 1966 First sport management programs The Evolution of Sport Management “the field of study offering the specialized training and education necessary for individuals seeking careers in any of the many segments of the industry.” The NASPE-NASSM, Joint Task Force on Sport Management Curriculum and Accreditation (1993) defined sport management as: Sport is singular in nature, whereas sports is a more all-encompassing term


In the sport business industry the term “sport” must encompass
sporting goods
sports tourism Sport vs. Sports North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM)


Journal of Sport Management (JSM) Sports management organization examples facilities
hotels and resorts
public and private fitness and racquet clubs
merchandizing
collegiate and professional sports Management sport related areas While used interchangeably,
sport(s) management is more accurate than sport(s) administration
for it most accurately describes this field from a universal, or global, perspective Sport Management Defined Included the following event components
Magnificent opening ceremonies
Athletic competition
Thousands of spectators
Multiple occupations
purveyors of food and drink
promoters
purchasing agents
marketing personnel
management directors From an applied perspective, sport management has: From an applied perspective, sport management has:

Existed since the time of ancient Greeks
Gladiators
Animal combat
Olympics Sport Management Defined This relatively new field has great potential, but its destiny is still in question. It is imperative that those responsible for the curricular development of sport management programs accept responsibility for ensuring quality professional preparation. At the institutional level, proliferation in the interest of increasing student enrollment must give way to a commitment to excellence.

Quality control is currently a major concern of academicians and practitioners in this field. In the endeavor an “accrediting” agency comparable to those in the business administration and communications is now being operationalized in sport management. Chapter Summary Although sport management is relatively new to academia, its acceptance as a legitimate area of study is well documented in the literature.

Although the terms sport management and sport administration are often used interchangeably, the first most accurately describes this field from a universal, or global perspective.


In 1993, the NASPE-NASSM Sport Management Cirriculum Standards were initially published and again in 2000 with minor changes. Sport management programs should use the standards to develop curricula. Chapter Summary Quality of faculties will influence the potential of sport management

Sport management must continue its development as an area of scholarship

Faculty must insist on maintaining and improving curriculum standards Future of Sport Management as an Academic Program Members agreed that program review and approval was important to ensure quality graduates

Task force convened in 1989

Curriculum standards approved by the NASSM board of directors in 1990

1991 - referendum was sent to and approved by 181 institutions with sports management programs NASPE – NASSM Joint Task Force
Hong Kong
Singapore
Germany
Malaysia
Ireland
Norway
Finland
India
Netherlands
Scotland Japan
China
Greece
Italy
South Africa
France
United Kingdom
Sweden
Spain
Korea
Taiwan Nations developing sports management programs Approved programs = 63
33 Undergraduate
26 Master’s
4 Doctorate

Institutions currently in folio review = 8
6 Undergraduate
2 Master’s
0 Doctorate Current sport management review registry A few years later –
first baccalaureate degrees granted

Biscayne College (now St. Thomas University)


St. John’s University EARLY EVOLUTION
Sports themed restaurants
Sports agent
Sports journalism
Sports photographer
Sports radio
Sports concessions
Sports statistics organization
Sports lawyers
Sports trading cards
Sports art
Sports merchandising
Sports reporter
Sports TV
Sports books
Sports promoter
Sporting goods
Sports accountant Sport administration jobs and careers
Healthier mental states
Improved cooperation skills
Feelings of success
Improved movement skills
Improved physical fitness
Reduction of stress Benefits of Being Physical Active
(for Children) Sport management is the study and practice involved in relation to all people, activities, organizations, and business involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any product that is sport, fitness, and recreation related; and, sport products that can be goods, services, people, places, or ideas

(Parks, Zanger, and Quarterman, 1998; Pitts,
Fielding, and Miller, 1994: Pitts and Stotlar, 2002). Definition of Sport Management for this text book: planning
organizing
directing
controlling
budgeting
leading and evaluating Management skills Emerged as an academic discipline and a professional occupation

Full-time employment

People employed in this field are know as practitioners From an applied perspective, sport management has: 1-* History of Sport Management Chapter 1
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