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Copy of American Government

Foundations of American Government
by

Elizabeth Noonan

on 13 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of American Government

Baron De Montesquieu
He believed that the best way to protect liberty is by
Separation of Powers
. He gives us the ideas of
checks and balances
in the government. He supported limited governmental powers.
BR #2
List People that you remember in history that have written important political documents that affect governments, like the Declaration of Independence.
You may also include people like Patrick Henry (Do you remember what he did?)
Use your Brains and Share with two other people. Write down any new info you receive.
Governments
Essential Vocabulary
Unalienable Rights
Endowed
Consent
Principles
Despotism
Popular Sovereignty
Deriving
Abolish
Institute
Foundations of American Government
Unit 2
European Political Philosophers
Thomas Hobbes

John Locke

Baron De Montesquieu

Georgia Performance Standard
SSCG1 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of the United States government.
b. Analyze the writings of Hobbes (Leviathan), Locke (Second Treatise of Government), and Montesquieu ( The Spirit of Laws) as they affect our concept of government.
Dissect the Standards
Identify important or unknown terms.
Assign meanings to terms
Determine Vocabulary that goes with standard
Identify learning goals of standard
Write a question(s) about the standard
Essential Questions Philosophers
Who are the major European political philosophers?
What are the philosophies of the four major European political thinkers?
How did the theories of the European political philosophers influence the formation of our government?
Essential Vocabulary
John Locke
Thomas Hobbes
Baron De Montesquieu
Social Contract
Natural Rights
Separation of powers
Review Primary Source Documents
Assemble in pairs and review the writings of Thomas Hobbes and Baron De Montesquieu, and John Locke
On a separate piece of paper write the main ideas found in the writings.
We will discuss them once you are done.
Thomas Hobbes
He believed that people in their nature would be in constant threat of conflict and war.
People were selfish and naturally want everything for themselves.

He believed a
strong government
was need to protect people and the best government would be a
Monarchy.
The people would give up some rights to gain the protection for a better life
Social Contract.
John Locke
He believed that people had a
natural right
to life, liberty , and property.
He gave us the
Social Contract
(Constitution) Theory.

People form governments to protect their rights. They have a right to also overthrow an unjust government.

Democracy over Monarchy
Do Now
Georgia Performance Standard
SSCG19
The Student will compare and contrast governments that are unitary, confederal, and federal; unitary, and federal; autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic; and presidential and parliamentary.
Dissect the Standards
Identify important or unknown terms.
Assign meanings to terms
Determine Vocabulary that goes with standard
Identify learning goals of standard
Write a question(s) about the standard
Essential Questions SSCG19
What are the structures and organizations of world governments?
How do democracies differ from dictatorships?
Vocabulary - Terms/Concepts to Know
Oligarchy
Democracy (Direct, Representative, Republic)
Autocracy
Republic
Centralized/Unitary
Federal/Divided
Confederated
Dictatorship
Classification by Geographic Distribution of Power
Unitary Government
A unitary government has all powers held by a single, central agency.
Confederate Government
A confederation is an alliance of independent states.
Different Types of Democracies -FEDERAL
All Democracies are governments "by the people"
The main difference is where the power sits
Some keep it all in one place while others spread it out among the states.

We do both, its called Divided or FEDERAL (GROUP OF CHAIRS) - Power shared between the National and state Governments - FEDERALISM!!!!
Democracy vs. Dictatorship
Democracy
In a democracy, supreme political authority rests with the people.
A direct democracy exists where the will of the people is translated into law directly by the people themselves.
In an indirect democracy, a small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives, expresses the popular will.
Dictatorship
A dictatorship exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people.
An autocracy is a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power.
An oligarchy is a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite.
Different Types of Democracies - Confederation
Different Types of Democracies - Centralized

Confederate (the UN, CSA, pre-constitution USA)--a loose organization of smaller places (states) that make their own rules. The confederate country asks its states to work together, but lacks the power to make them.
Georgia Performance Standard
SSCG1a
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of United States constitutional government.
Analyze key ideas of limited government and the rule of law as seen in the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights.
 
Dissect the Standards
Identify important or unknown terms.
Assign meanings to terms
Determine Vocabulary that goes with standard
Identify learning goals of standard
Write a question(s) about the standard
Montesquieu
Separation of Powers is necessary



Vocabulary
Limited Government
Rule of Law
Government is restricted in what it can do. Individuals have certain rights that cannot be taken away.
The government and its official are never above the law, and are subject to it.
Magna Carta 1215 by Nobility of England
THE KING VS. NOBELS:ROUND 1
Created to protect the people from unfair and harmful acts by the king against the people.
Limited the Power of the King
Trial by jury
Due process

of law- Treated Fairly
No one is above the Law
(Rule of Law)
Originally for the Privileged/Nobility
Later for everyone
Petition of Rights 400 years
after Magna Carta
Parliament would not increase taxes until King Charles I signed the Petition of Rights
Extention/Revamp of the Magna Carta
Imprisonment by lawful judgment of peers
Trial By Jury
No
Martial Law
(military control)
extension of DUE PROCESS
English Bill of Rights 1689
KING VS. NOBILITY :PART 2
Sixty years after the Petition of Rights
William and Mary of Orange were presented this bill from Parliament (or the Nobility)
This document expanded the rights of parliament and the people.
This bill affected not only the British but the British Colonists living in America
NO standing army without parliaments consent
Free elections to Parliament
The right to bear arms,
petition the govt
Fair trial
Freedom from excessive bail
Freedom from cruel and usual punishment
THINK OF OUR BILL OF RIGHTS...hum where did we get those ideas???
Georgia Performance Standard SSCG2
The student will analyze the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
a. Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Social Contract Theory.
b. Evaluate the Declaration of Independence as a persuasive argument.
Dissect the Standards
Identify important or unknown terms.
Assign meanings to terms
Determine Vocabulary that goes with standard
Identify learning goals of standard
Write a question(s) about the standard
BR#3
What ideas of Thomas Hobbes and John Lockes’ social contract theory are found in the Declaration of Independence?
What are the main ideas expressed in the Expressed in the Declaration of Independence?
The Settlers Brought with them three main concepts
1. The need for an ordered social system, or government.
2.The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all powerful.
3.The concept of representative government—a government that serves the will of the people.
The state and central government Must work together and BALANCE each other out like a set of chairs
around a table.
Unitary/Centralized --same laws throughout the country--the national government makes ALL of the rules. - ONE BIG CHAIR


-No state or local gov

-Government is slow to handle local problems.

-Difficult to meet the
needs of the citizens

- France, State Governments
Confederation --a loose set of chairs or Independent states

Organization of smaller places that makes own rules/laws

States can work together but lack power to control another



Ex: European Union,
The Confederate
States of America
During the Civil War.
Our county under the
Articles of Confederation
Republic vs. Democracy
Different Types of Republics
Different Types of Democracies


Yes, the US is a democracy now, but when our founding fathers created the government for our country to stand upon, they were intentionally creating a government based on the people's decision to elect representatives. (a REPUBLIC!)
Republic vs. Democracy
The term DEMOCRACY is sometimes confused with the term REPUBLIC because the meanings are very similar

The biggest difference is....

in a Direct Democracy everyone gets the right to participate and have a say in government.
The common good of a state drives from individual interests.

In a Republic representatives are chosen but the decision they make reflect what is best for the state as a whole. Individual rights and differences are often frowned upon.

A REPUBLIC is actually one out of 3 forms of a DEMOCRACY.
Did you know...?
This is why many people confuse the US with a republic, because we are both a REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY a DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.
AKA...A MUTT COUNTRY
MIXED
UP GOVERNMENT
TYPE
TIMES TWO

Natural Rights- life, liberty, property
People should be allowed to protest and speak their minds.
The Powers should be separated
Ideas led to formation of democracies
John Locke
People are naturally bad and at war.
needed a strong absolute monarchy to govern and enforce laws
Assert order and obedience
Powers should be centralized under one authority
Ideas helped support authoritarian and totalitarian governments
Thomas Hobbes
Rousseau
Also believed in a Social Contract but felt that all people should decide and enter into this contract with each other
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
Against electing leaders and or representative
Felt that the people would choose to work together for the good of the community in order to stay in the community
Popular Sovereignty
Keep communities small and under control.
"We the people"....is what we really took from him. The idea that people should get a say in government whether it be directly or indirectly.
Declaration of Independence
1776

Six months after TP's pamphlet was published.
The Mayflower Compact 1620
The Puritans in Mass

Landed in Mass, which was an independent territory at the time.
A Government was needed fast
All of the men agreed to create a government and follow the rules

(self government)
Follow all of the rules
laws followed by everyone
government will serve the common good

By 1700 King George III and Parliament were making more and more demands on the colonies.
Many of our founding fathers were getting together to discuss options for the future.
The began reading a pamphlet called Common Sense by Paine.
In this pamphlet he did not have any new ideas.
Instead he explained why and how to fight for independence when necessary.
THINK REVOLUTION BABY!!!

ITS COMMON SENSE
Thomas Paine 1776

There are lots of different types of Government and most are like the U.S. , Mutts. We however are going to break down just one type, DEMOCRACY!
!!
Examples: US, Canada, Germany, Australia, Mexico, India
A. The best form of government is a representative democracy.

B. Only the president should have the power to declare war.

C. A good way to make laws is for all the people to directly vote on them.

D. Religion should be a part of the government.

E. The government should have the authority to confiscate a person’s property for the public good.
LETS DEBATE
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