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Ch. 4 Selected Motor Factors Affecting Motor Development
Transcript of Ch. 4 Selected Motor Factors Affecting Motor Development
1. Recall... the process of developing motor patterns influenced by:
c. Demands of movement tasks
"From Head to Toes"
1. Gradual control over musculature.
- Fetal development...head forms first...arms, then legs.
- Infants control head/neck muscles first followed by trunk...then legs.
From Center to Periphery
1. Increased control of musculature from mid-line of body to distal points.
- Trunk and shoulder girdle grow before arms & legs.
- Arms and legs develop prior to fingers & toes.
- Developing infant/child controls major muscles near torso prior to arms/hands.
Prior to moving forward in the discussion of development, an overview of anatomy and biomechanics is warranted.
2. Developmental Direction states that change in motor patterns are (a)
based on coordination and
maturation of nervous system
3. Gesell (1954)....researcher who postulated that development occurs:
a. from the head to the feet
b. from the center of body to the peripheral
c. these theorized tendencies followed the direction of nervous system growth/development.
1. Standing upright
2. Arms at sides
3. Head facing forward
4. Palms forward
5. Feet forward
Reference points which allow for the designation of sites or directions of structures of the body
Fundamental Position (Neutral)
1. Similar to anatomical position
2. Arms relaxed
3. Palms face inward
1. Medial: Toward mid-line of body.
2. Lateral: Away from mid-line of body.
3. Proximal: Toward point of attachment.
4. Distal: Away from point of attachment.
5. Superior: Toward the top of head.
6. Inferior: Toward the bottom of the feet.
7. Anterior: Toward front of body.
8. Posterior: Toward the back of body.
Relative Positions Continued
1. Dorsal: Structure closer to the posterior side.
2. Ventral: Structure closer to the anterior (abdomen) side.
- The liver is ventral to the spine
The Anatomical Planes
Relative "Side" Descriptors
1. Ipsilateral: 2 points that are on the same side of a given reference point.
2. Contralateral: 2 points that are on opposite sides of a given reference point.
A. The left arm and left leg are ipsilateral to one another with respect to the spine.
B. The left arm and right leg are contralateral to one another with respect to the spine.
Used to describe specific sections of the body
1. Vertical plane that divides body into medial and lateral parts
2. The mid-sagittal plane passes through mid-line of body "naval" (following the spine).
3. Vantage point for flexion/ extension exercises.
1. Vertical plane that divides body into anterior and posterior aspects. (Front and back).
2. Vantage point for adduction/ abduction movements.
1. Horizontal Plane that divides body into inferior and superior parts. (top/ bottom)
2. Vantage point for rotational movements.
In Class Activity
Provide a list of
a. 5 activities/ exercises that occur in each plane.
b. 5 relationships (organs/muscles/limbs) using descriptors.