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adrian darcy

on 17 March 2013

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1.4 Effects of Training Acute Responses (immediate effects) of exercise Training effects are the physiological changes your body makes in response to the demands of exercise.

There are 2 kinds of responses:
- Acute responses (immediate): only last for the duration of the exercise and consider cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular responses.

- Chronic adaptations (long-term effects): take a minimum of 6 weeks of training to develop. Circulorespiratory effects can be observed at rest, during submaximal exercise and during maximum exercise. Muscular adaptations will vary and depend on what type of training is being performed ie aerobic v anaerobic.
Acute responses to exercise are those changes which occur in the body between rest and exercise and only last for the duration of the exercise.

The following acute responses occur due to the working muscles need for oxygen during exercise. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO EXERCISE: • Increased Heart Rate (HR)
When we exercise, there is an increased demand for fuels and oxygen by working muscles and also a resultant increase in the need to remove waste products, which are also being produced at faster rates. These include carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions and lactate. As a result, the heart needs to pump faster and/or harder in order to increase the supply of blood and the elements it carries (oxygen and fuels) to working muscles, as well as increasing waste removal.

- Heart Rate is measured in Beats per Minute (BPM) eg. 93 BPM

- Working out your Effective Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) is done by calculating:

Effective Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) = 220 minus your age.

- You can then calculate % of max HR.

• Increased Stroke Volume (SV)
Stroke Volume is a measure of how much blood is squeezed out of the heart into the aorta each time it beats. When you exercise, your heart muscle contracts more forcefully to increase blood (and hence oxygen) supply to your muscles. This causes a more complete emptying of your ventricles, so your stroke volume increases (Amezdroz et al, 2010 p 390).

• Increased Cardiac Output (Q)
Cardiac Output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute. When you begin to exercise, your cardiac output increases in an effort to increase the blood supply (and hence oxygen delivery) to your working muscles. If you exercise at a submaximal level your cardiac output will eventually level out (steady state). However, if you keep increasing the pace, cardiac output will increase linearly up to the point of exhaustion (Amezdroz et al, 2010 p 390).

Cardiac Output (Q) = Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR)

Q = SV x HR • Increased Systolic Blood Pressure Blood pressure is recorded using two numbers. An example might be 120/80. The larger number indicates the pressure in the arteries as the heart squeezes out blood during each beat. It is called systolic blood pressure. The lower number indicates the pressure as the heart relaxes before the next beat. It is called the diastolic blood pressure.

During exercise, because stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output increase, more blood is pumped into the arteries more quickly. This cause the systolic blood pressure to increase while diastolic remains fairly constant.

• Increased Blood Flow
During exercise, blood flow to the working muscles increases because of increase Q and a greater distribution of blood away from the non-working areas to active muscles (Amezdroz et al, 2010 p 392). • Redistribution of Blood Flow to working muscles
Blood tends to flow to tissues and cells in proportion to their level of activity. Specific increases occur in blood supply to parts of the body that require extra supplies of oxygen and fuels to support increased workloads. Specific decreases occur in blood supply to those parts of the body not requiring extra oxygen and fuel for that period of time. For example, during intense exercise, extra blood flows to the muscles to provide extra oxygen and nutrients (Amezdroz et al, 2010 p 392). • Increased a-vO2 difference
The arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-VO2 diff.) is the difference between oxygen concentration in the arteries and the oxygen concentration in the veins. The a-vO2 diff. shows how much oxygen is being absorbed into your muscles and used to produce aerobic energy (Amezdroz et al, 2010 p 392).

For example when the body is at rest, the arterial oxygen concentration could be 19ml of oxygen per 100ml of blood, and the venous oxygen concentration could be 32ml of oxygen per 100ml of blood. Thus the muscles are using 6ml of oxygen per 100 ml of blood. Thus the a-vO2diff. is 6ml/100ml. When a person begins to exercise, more oxygen is extracted from the blood as it passes through the muscle because it is needed to produce energy to keep the muscle contracting. As a result, the venous oxygen concentration could drop to 4ml of oxygen per 100ml of blood. Thus the a-vO2diff would be 15ml/100ml. • Decreased Blood Plasma volume
Because of increased sweating, the blood plasma volume usually decreases during strenuous exercise. • Increased blood lactate concentrations
The amount of blood lactate accumulation depends on the exercise intensity and the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver enough oxygen to the muscles, to clear the lactate as it is produced When the clearance of blood lactate does not match production, there is an increase in blood lactate concentration. As exercise intensity increases so does blood lactate production and accumulation (Amezdroz et al, 2010 p 393).

• Blood pH decreases
This is due to increased blood lactate accumulation with increasing exercise intensity RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO EXERCISE: The following respiratory responses occur to supply the body with more oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide:

• Increased Respiratory Rate (respiratory frequency)
ie the number of breaths per minute increases.

• Increased Tidal Volume (volume per breath)
ie the amount of air inhaled and exhaled per breath
• Increased Ventilation (volume per minute)
Ie The amount of air breathed in one minute.

Ventilation (V) = Respiratory Rate (RR) X Tidal Volume (TV)

• Increased Oxygen Uptake (VO2) or volume of oxygen consumed
Oxygen uptake(VO2) is the amount of oxygen taken up and used by the body to produce energy. It reflects how much work is being done by the body. When your body exercises, your VO2 increases as your body absorbs more oxygen and uses it to produce more aerobic energy (Amezdroz et al, 2010 p 395). MUSCULAR RESPONSES TO EXERCISE: • An increased number of muscle contractions to propel the body
• Increased Motor Unit activation so that more fibres are fired to contract and the muscles make more forceful contractions.
• Increased recruitment of muscle fibres in a motor unite to produce more force.
• Increased Blood Flow to the muscles (vasodilation/vasoconstriction)
• Increased Muscle Temperature (due to increased blood flow & ATP production)
• Increased muscle enzyme activity (in order to produce increased amounts of ATP)
• Increased Oxygen extraction at the muscles as myoglobin delivers more oxygen to the working muscles.
• Depletion of muscle energy stores (ATP-PC stores, glycogen & triglycerides) Chronic Circulorespiratory Adaptations (long term effects) to exercise may be observed Chronic responses or adaptations to exercise are those changes that occur over longer time durations due to the effects from training.

A number of factors affect the nature of chronic adaptations:
- The individual athletes’ capacities and genetic factors
- The frequency, duration & intensity of training
- The type and method of training used:
1. Power (anaerobic) type training
2. Endurance (aerobic) training at sub-maximal level

Note: For explanation of some of the below terms, please refer to relevant information in previous sections.

Chronic Circulorespiratory Adaptations (long term effects) of exercise may be observed: AT REST:
• Decreased resting Heart Rate (HR)
• Cardiac Hypertrophy • Increased Stroke Volume (SV)
• Unchanged or decreased Cardiac Output
• Increased Blood Volume & Haemoglobin
• Decreased Blood Pressure
• Increased Capillarisation of the heart muscle
• Increased Capillarisation of skeletal muscle
• Decreased Lung Ventilation (improved oxygen extraction) DURING SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE:
• Decreased Heart Rate (HR)
• Cardiac Hypertrophy
• Increased Capillarisation of the heart muscle
• Improved heart rate recovery rates
• Increased Stroke Volume (SV)
• Decreased blood flow to working muscles (increased efficiency)
• Decreased Blood Pressure
• Increased a-VO2 difference
• Unchanged Cardiac Output (Q)
• Decreased Minute Ventilation
• Decreased or unchanged VO2 (oxygen consumption)
• Cardiac Hypertrophy
• Increased Capillarisation of heart muscle
• Increased Capillarisation of skeletal muscle
• Increased Stroke Volume (SV)
• Increased Cardiac Output (Q)
• Increased VO2 Max
• Improved heart rate recovery rates
• Increased a-VO2 diff
• Increased/unchanged muscle blood flow
• Increased Minute Ventilation
• Increased LIP (resulting in decreased lactic acid production) Chronic Muscular Adaptations (long term effects) of exercise The following are chronic adaptations which are also termed long term effects of exercise that occur as a result of the following training regimes:

• Increased Oxygen extraction by increased concentrations of myoglobin
• Increased oxygen delivery
• Increased numbers of energy production sites ie size and number of Mitochondria
• Increased oxidation of fat’s (glycogen sparing)
• Increased fuel stores of muscle glycogen & triglycerides
• Increased size of slow twitch muscle fibres
• Decreased utilisation of Anaerobic Glycolysis System NON-ENDURANCE (ANAEROBIC & CALLISTHENIC) TRAINING:
• Increased muscles stores of ATP & PC stores, increased levels of enzymes & thus an increases in the capacity of the ATP-PC system

• Increased muscle glycogen stores and glycolytic enzymes & thus increased glycolytic capacity
• Increased storage of glycogen
• Increased size of fast twitch muscle fibres (Muscular Hypertrophy)

• Increased speed & force of contraction
• Increased strength amounts of connective tissue
• Increased numbers of muscle capillaries
• Flexibility training effects: Increased length of muscles, tendons & ligaments, increased Something extra to think about
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