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History of the Periodic Table of Elements

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on 18 November 2012

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Transcript of History of the Periodic Table of Elements

By: G9-2 at ISF Academy History of Atomic Theory 1743-1794
Paris, France
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, a French chemist, is regarded as one of the founders of modern chemistry. He showed the Phlogiston theory to be inconsistent by showing that the mass of the products in a reaction are equal to the mass of the reactants, proving the Law of Conservation of Mass. Laviosier also changed chemistry from a qualitative to a quantitative science and clarified the distinction between elements and compounds. Furthermore, he showed that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is given off in respiration. He discovered the importance of oxygen in respiration and combustion. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier Most updated version of the periodic table of elements, with the newest element, 118. Ununoctium Current Understanding of the Periodic Table of Elements Democritus was born from ca. 460 B.C. to ca. 370 B.C., in Abdera, Thrace, Greece. Democritus's significant discoveries affected our current understanding in atomism. Democritus worked with his partner Leucippus, and discovered through countless observations and experiments, that everything is made out of "atoms", which are physically indivisible. Also, they found out that between these atoms, there are empty spaces. Furthermore, Democritus concluded that atoms have been, and will always be in motion. He added on that there are an infinite amount of atoms, and there are infinite kinds of atoms, which are different in shape and size. Without his important findings, we will not be able to further research on atoms, like the protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom. Democritus Early Theories Full name: Aristotle Aristotle The word alchemist are
composed of two words:
Al and chemist. The symbol
"Al" in the periodic table of
elements is gold, The main
goal for alchemists are to
make noble metals those are
fairly rare like gold and silver.
They originally got their idea
from historical text from different
rituals of religion, like the
philosopher's stone, which turns
things into gold. There is a few
chemists that believed in that
idea and thought that they could
gain that power from chemistry.
They although claim themselves
as scientists though the others
banished them from being one
during that time. Alchemists
1731 – 1810
English physicist and chemist
He discovered hydrogen as an element that is a colorless and odorless gas which forms an explosive mixture in air and burns with air in 1766, although he thought incorrectly that the gas came from the metal, not the acid.
This is important because it takes up about 90% of the universe by weight, and hydrogen by water (H2O) it essential in life, present in all living things.
Picture: hydrogen gas molecules Cavendish Higgs Chadwick
October,7,1885; Copenhagen, Denmark
(http://atomicstructureforelectrons.webs.com/bohrsmodel.htm)

Bohr was a Danish Physicist who made fundemental contributions to the understanding of atomic strutures and quantum mechinics. He proprosed the prominet Bohr model of the atom in 1915. The Bohr model is a planetory model in which the electrons orbit around the nucleus(think of the solar system).(http://chemistry.about.com/od/atomicstructure/a/bohr-model.htm)

The main points of the Bohr Model are:
1)Electrons orbit the nucleus in orbits that have a set size and energy
2)The energy of the orbit is related to its size. The lowest energy is found in the smallest orbit.
3)The energy of the orbit is related to its size. The lowest energy is found in the smallest orbit.
(http://chemistry.about.com/od/atomicstructure/a/bohr-model.htm)


The Bohr Model is significant to our understanding because it was able to qualitatively explain many properties of atoms which became codified later into the PTE. Niels Henrik David Bohr D.O.B: 7 Nov 1867
D.O.D: 4 July 1934
Marie Curie was born in 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. At the time, she was still called Marie Sklodowska. It was only until her marriage to fellow chemist Pierre Curie that she changed her name. Marie attended the prestigious Sorbonne University.
Marie discovered radium, an element that is very useful in our lives. Through her discoveries, people developed the concept of x ray, which now helps to cure patients through x ray films. (self)
This is significant to our understanding of atoms and the elements because it was through Marie and Pierre's (her husband) investigation discovered that there were indeed radioactive rays that came out of atoms. They then proved their theories were correct. This was the birth of radium and polonium. (http://www.aip.org/history/curie/resbr2.htm) Marie Curie Joseph John Thomson discovered the electron. JJ Thomson was born in a suburb of Manchester in 1856. He entered Trinity College in 1876 as a scholar and stayed there for the rest of his life, becoming a professor and lecturer. He passed away in 1940. He was awarded a noble prize and was knighted for his contributions to science. (http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1906/thomson-bio.html)
While conducting a series of experiments on cathode rays, he suggested that there are particles much smaller than atoms that make up atoms. He eventually discovered that cathode rays are made out of electrons, and that electrons were present in every atom. Later, he developed a model of the atom. He did the initial work on the mass spectrograph. His assistant later continued this work and used it to discover isotopes in non-radioactive elements. (http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1906/thomson-bio.html) His discovery helped us understand the atom better, and the mass spectrograph led to many scienti fic advances as well. Joseph John Thompson John Newlands is a Scientist; his achievement on the PTE is that he organized all the elements that are known at that time (1864).Although this is a brilliant and useful idea, other scientist didn’t accept it because “he put Iron in the same group as Oxygen and Sulfur, which are two non-metals”. Therefore no one accept this table.

This is a significant one because it organized all elements and started the concept of organizing elements, then people edit it and started to fill in the others element which were slowly discovered and transfer to the nowadays PTE.
http://corrosion-doctors.org/Periodic/Periodic-Newlands.htm

-Born in 26 Nov ,1837
-Born in West Square, Southward, London, England
-Die on 29 July, 1890 (age 60)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Alexander_Reina_Newlands Newlands He born and died in the city in Italy called Turin He born on June 9th, 1776 and died on July 9th, 1856The discovery of Avogadro was the way of expressing the amount of a chemical substance, which is the number 6.02225 × 10^23.
He is significant to our understanding of atoms, elements or the Periodic Table of Elements because this number is used in certain reactions, and this number is used in some reactions equations. Avogadro 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844
John Dalton was a English physicist, meteorologist and chemist.
John Dalton was also known for his Pioneering work in the atomic theory, and his research on colour blindness
http://www.infoplease.com/spot/hhm1.html
http://www.biography.com/people/john-dalton-9265201 John Dalton 1733-1804
He lived in London.
He discovered oxygen.
Oxygen is one of the most significant elements of the Periodic table, because it is required for any combustion.
The discovery of oxygen was credited to Priestley and a swedish chemist, Carl. They discovered it at nearly the same time, but they worked independently.
Joseph Priestley's discovery, oxygen.
http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/priestley.html
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/L-P/Oxygen.html Joseph Priestley Rutherford Robert Boyle
1627-1691 Ireland
This scientist shows the importance of air and how it affects us. He proved that air is necessary for the process of combustion and for animal breathing. He also prove to the public that air is critical in the transmit ion of sound as it passes through the air by the vibration of the air molecules. He also founded out how the volume of a gas varies inversely against the pressure, known as Boyle’s law. Boyle Born: 384 B.C.E.
Died: 322 B.C.E
http://www.notablebiographies.com/An-Ba/Aristotle.html Location: Northern Greek village of Stagira
http://www.bookrags.com/biography/aristotle-wsd/ Discovery:
Aristotle discovered four elements: fire, air, water and earth. All matter is made up of these four elements and matter had four properties: hot, cold, dry and wet. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/chemistry/chem-c2507/navbar/chemhist.html Signican Significant to Chemistry:
He explained a new theory to know how the four elements of Empedocles produce the wide range of substances apprehended by our senses.
Also, he suggests that there are two pairs of alternatives - hot and cold, moist and dry - which provide the exact nature of matter.
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/chemistry/chem-c2507/navbar/chemhist.html Reference: http://understandingscience.ucc.ie/pages/sci_robertboyle.htm Enki, in legend was the first alchemist from 3000 B.C. He was one of the god in the greek mythology.
A deity that created gold. His Discoveries:
Laughing Gas --- Niltrogen
New metal such as potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, calcium and magnesium. (Qouted)
Safety lamp name after him - Davy Lamp Humphry Davy (1778 - 1829) His Footprint:
Penzance (1778)
Europe (1813 ~ 1815) Reason It Is Important:
His discovery had a great connection with our life
His dicovery improved the industries such as agriculture, mining and tanning Reference:
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SCdavy.htm Mendeleev was born in 1834 in a small village near Tobolsk, Siberia, and he died in 1907 while living in Saint Petersburg, where he spent most of his life.
Mendeleev's most famous work was his creation of the first Periodic Table of Elements. After years of laborious work Mendeleev published this table in his book "Principles of Chemistry".
63 known elements in his table.
To the right is Mendeleev's periodic table, quite advanced for its time.
Predicted properties of unexplored elements (silicon, boron, petroleum)
Corrected erroneous information previously accepted (atomic weights)
Andrew's Concept (critical temperature of gases)
Liquid properties
Breakthroughs
http://chemistry.about.com/od/imagesclipartstructures/ig/Science-Pictures/Mendeleev-s-Periodic-Table.-0EA.htm
http://www.chemistry.co.nz/mendeleev.htm Dmitri Mendeleev Discovery http://www-groups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Democritus.html
http://www.nndb.com/people/790/000087529/ (http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~meg3c/classes/tcc313/200Rprojs/lavoisier2/home.html, http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Lavoisier.html) Lavoisier proved the Phlogiston theory to be inconsistent. JJ Thomson did not quite have the full picture of what makes up an atom, but his discovery of the electron eventually led to the model of an atom we have today.
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_Avogadro's_full_namehttp://aboutchemists.stormpages.com/avogadro.htmlhttp://science.jrank.org/pages/697/Avogadro-s-Number.htmlhttp://www.mathamazement.com/Lessons/Everyday-Math/05_Miscellaneous/05_03_Important-Numbers/avogadros-number.html

According to this Period table of elements, we can find the following information of this element, Radium.
Atomic number: 88
Symbol: Ra
Name: Radium
Atomic Weight: 226
Electron configuration: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2
State of matter: Solid
Type of element: Metal
Type of metal: Alkaline Earth Metal
Boiling Point: 2010 K
Melting Point: 973 K

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