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Turning Wood into Bones
Transcript of Turning Wood into Bones
Turning Wood into Bones By:Alisha Webber, Pablo Torres First Generation Bone and joint degenerative and inflammatory problems affect millions of people worldwide. In fact, they account for half of all chronic diseases in people over 50 years of age in developed countries. 1940s: Inert Second Generations
1980s-2000: Bioactive Third Generation:
Mid 1980s: Cellular Stimulation Bones from cadavers Metals and Ceramics Wood-based Bone Scientists in Italy at the Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics have developed a way of turning rattan wood into bone that is almost identical to the human bone tissue. Rattan Wood Rattan is the name for the roughly 600 species of palms
Long thin jointed and pliable stems.
Somewhat similar to bamboo
Rattan cannot stand up by itself.
It grows over other plants for support. Criteria for the proper selection of wood:
needs a strongly oriented microstructure
the presence of channels wide enough for hosting cells
good mechanical properties of the wood Rattan wood exhibits a structure very close to that of natural bone tissue
Contains aligned channels running throughout the wood
Promotes angiogenesis, a crucial feature for enabling the exchange of nutrients and waste products and for integrating the rattan scaffold into the surrounding bone "Apart from its chemical composition, bone's remarkable properties of lightness, resistance, and capacity for self-regeneration are due mostly to its hierarchically organized structure, which is not possible to reproduce using current manufacturing technology," Tampier  Current Technology While cells recognize hydroxyapatite as a source of calcium and phosphorus and can incorporate it to form new bone tissue that completely replaces the bone implant, the material has poor mechanical strength and cannot be used as a substitute for load-bearing bones Hydroxyapatite, a calcium-phosphate material with a composition resembling the inorganic part of bone 1st Step:
The wood is cut into pieces with the desired shapes and sizes, after which it is dried and subjected to a thermal oxygen-free treatment at 1000° to 1100°C. Carbon template reacts with gaseous calcium in an oxygen-free, high-temperature environment, forming calcium carbide.
Then converted into calcium oxide by heating it at 1000°C in a combination of air and calcium carbonate in flux or under pressurized carbon dioxide. Pieces are transformed into hydroxyapatite, reproducing the mineral part of bone.
Performed by soaking the pieces in a phosphate solution under temperature-controlled conditions so that the end material contains carbonate ions and will likely behave in vivo very much like natural bone Strong, light, not artificial, and durable
Rattan is highly biocompatible,
Chemical composition of the material obtained is the same as that of natural bone
The capacity of the hydroxyapatite scaffold to integrate into existing bone promotes osteogenesis and angiogenesis while lending biomechanical properties to the fused structure. At the Istec laboratory of bioceramics in Faenza , near Bologna, a herd of sheep have already been implanted with the bones.
The X-rays of the sheep's legs show the progress they are making. Particles from the sheep's own bones are migrating to the bone made from wood.
Within a few months, the real and the artificial bone will be like one continuous bone.
No signs of rejection or infection in the sheep Experiments Blood response between humans and animals may differ
Animals have a faster immune system than humans
Same results? Wood as Replacement Material for Ostechondral Bone Defects
Reconstruction of bone defects in the knee joint of rabbits.
Wood showed characteristic properties to be incorporated by the host bone during observation time of 4, 8, and 20 weeks.
The natural channel structure of wood served as a porous scaffold
The other properties of heat-treated wood, such as bioactivity, good handling properties, and sufficient biomechanical properties, might be additional favorable factors for the application. Literature Juniperus Wood
Study investigated the toxicity of the oil, the effect of sterilization on the mechanical properties of the wood, and bone attachment with animal studies.
Sterilization of the wood in boiling water lowered the elastic modulus and modulus of rupture to a level at which the elastic modulus could be better matched to bone
Wood shaped into the form of femoral implants were implanted into rabbits and displayed good acceptance by the body up to a period of 3 years, indicating bone apposition, abutment into pores, and growth into drilled cavities. Wood-derived
Physical structure is more spongy than solid, like many metal or ceramic implants, live bone should grow into wood-derived bone substitute quicker and more securely
Softer wooden implants might cause fewer bone breaks. Ti:
Unable to interact with living tissue, unlike the wood-derived substitute.
The mechanical properties can be compromised
Current implants are significantly harder than the bone that surrounds them.
May snap and break Titanium vs Wood-derived Advantages People with major trauma accidents or cancer, the current range of alternatives can be weak and do not fuse with the existing bone Costs about $850 for a single block. One block translates to about one bone implant. Requires conventional furnaces, an autoclave, and basic chemical laboratory equipment 1 2 3 4 The researchers also note that they can create virtually any size or shape. 5 No need for post-surgery because the material‘wood' fuse with the bone The research team is also trying to transform red oak and sipo into biomorphic hydroxyapatite
Reproducing the dense cortical part of bone, which surrounds the spongy, more-porous and biologically active part Wood-derived bone substitute are still not cleared for use in humans. The scientists are currently limited to sheep
Predicts that the rattan-based scaffold will be tested on human patients within five years
Until wood-derived bone subtitutes are available to humans, it remains as potential material for bone replacements Human Implementation http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=titianium+hip+stem&view=detail&id=42C944AACDAB4EE5D19CF78076D05114CA371F0C http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=biodegradble+screws&view=detail&id=E668E5E59307DF8EF924DC4DA0766F0FE8A1D38C http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=prescription+drugs&view=detail&id=BD9B24405D9211668438005DAB1C4D61D4462CF3 http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=rattan+wood&view=detail&id=628E69338A8B6A4EB6EFCD87942CBA71DA17A658 http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=rattan+wood+baskets&view=detail&id=65040BBACE1710EEEC26D801CF39D77DF0874A7E http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8438209.stm http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=rattan+wood+as+bones&view=detail&id=FC3A479993EC91C590DFD35DB6054AD2FCE03ABE http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8438209.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8438209.stm http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=sheep+&view=detail&id=D28F2B09C283A3846A20549C016DE9D4FA0EC5D6&first=36  A. J. Aho, J. Rekola, J. Matinlinna, J. Gunn, T. Tirri, P. Viitaniemi, and P. Vallittu, “Natural composite of wood as replacement material for ostechondral bone defects,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 83B, no. 1, pp. 64–71, Sep. 2007.  K. A. Gross and E. Ezerietis, “Juniper wood as a possible implant material,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 64A, no. 4, pp. 672–683, Feb. 2003. http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=lowering+cost&view=detail&id=84AB1A637A2C1090A486E5DB25E587C5EDEE72E5 http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=future&view=detail&id=0BBD296FF32D36575A3B60C07D53F8C27354DC4B http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=prosthetic+surgery&view=detail&id=101474DD3AA77109CD9E55201EE8D884DB1EA0DC&first=37 Processing of Material Conclusion
Previous experiments indicate favorable results
Durability, strength, biocompatability, and durability.
Cost-effective and quick to make
Portrays desired degradable properties, fusion with bones
Human experiments still to be made
Potential leading material Sources
 A. J. Aho, J. Rekola, J. Matinlinna, J. Gunn, T. Tirri, P. Viitaniemi, and P. Vallittu, “Natural composite of wood as replacement material for ostechondral bone defects,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 83B, no. 1, pp. 64–71, Sep. 2007.
 K. A. Gross and E. Ezerietis, “Juniper wood as a possible implant material,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 64A, no. 4, pp. 672–683, Feb. 2003
“New Artificial Bone Made of Wood: Discovery News,” Discovery News. [Online]. Available: http://news.discovery.com/tech/artificial-bone-made-wood.html. [Accessed: 02-Dec-2012
“Scientists make bones from wood,” BBC, 03-Jan-2010. http://cardiffhipandknee.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/hipandkneereplacement.jpg