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Troy Middle School Infectious Diseases 7th Grade

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Jon Bergin

on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of Troy Middle School Infectious Diseases 7th Grade

Infectious Diseases
What is an Infectious Disease?
Viral Infections
Defenses Against Infectious Diseases
Common Viral Infections
An
infectious disease
is any disease that is caused by an agent that can pass from one living thing to another.
Common Bacterial Infections
Strep Throat
- caused by the bacteria called streptococcus. Can spread from person to person by touch, food, or drink. A throat culture is used to test for it. Antibiotics are usually prescribed.

Tuberculosis
- caused from slow growing bacteria called mycobacteria. Makes people really tired. Still kills about 3 million people per year. It is spread by a contagious cough. To treat TB, doctors use a combination of up to 5 different types of antibiotics.

Sinus Infections
- Affects the open areas in your skull. These areas fill with mucus and bacteria. Headache, Fever, Runny Nose. Called sinusitis.
Bacterial Infections
*caused by bacteria, they can reproduce themselves every 20 minutes.
*they do
not
need a host cell to reproduce
Examples include
-Strep Throat, Sinus Infection, Pink Eye

Antibiotic
- a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. (Penicillin)

Different antibiotics are used to treat different infections

*Follow directions for taking antibiotics. Must finish your prescription
How infections spread???
Direct
- from person to person (touching, kissing)
Indirect
- from person, to object, to person (sharing food or drink)
A
virus
is an extremely small particle that consists of an outer shell and genetic material. Unlike bacteria, viruses
cannot reproduce on their own
. They must enter a host cell, and use it to reproduce.

Examples include: Influenza, HIV, herpes, mononucleosis, common cold

Most viruses
don't
have medication to fight them off. You need proper rest, nutrition, and hydration to allow your body to fend them off over time.

Some drugs are being developed in an attempt to fight certain viruses as doctors look for future cures. (Herpes, AIDS)
Immune System
- is made up of organs and special cells that fight infection. (T-Cells, White Blood Cells) Without your immune system your body would be powerless against most infections. (Discuss HIV/AIDS)
Keep your immune system strong by eating well, exercising, and getting proper rest.

Physical Barriers to Fight Infection Include:
Skin, Hair (nose, eyes), Tears, Mucus (nose, lungs), Saliva, and Stomach Acid
Common Cold
: Average person gets 2 per year. Symptoms include sore throat, sneezing, headache, and runny nose. There are many different types of cold viruses. Doctors are developing medicine to help fight these viruses, but a medicine that works on one virus will not work on the next.
Influenza
- (flu)Symptoms include fever, chills, and body aches

Cold=Just Head Flu=Entire Body

A
vaccine
is a substance that is used to keep a person from getting a disease. It is an inactive strain of the disease that tricks your body into thinking it is already sick. Your body begins producing antibodies to fight the disease. ( your body is ready to defend itself before it even gets sick)
Examples of Disease Causing Organisms
Bacteria
-one celled organism that is found everywhere
(strep throat, tuberculosis, sinus infection)
Virus
-an extremely small organism that consists of only a protein coat and some genetic material
(cold, influenza)
Fungus
-yeasts, molds, mildews
(athletes foot, ringworm)
Parasite
-an organism that lives in a host organism, draws nourishment from the host
(tapeworm, malaria)
Epidemic
- is a widespread occurrence of disease.
Example: In 1832, London had a wide outbreak of cholera (bacterial infection) due to contaminate drinking water from human sewage. Many deaths!
Mononucleosis
Caused by the
Epstein-Barr virus
, or EBV. It is passed through infected saliva, so it is sometimes called the "kissing disease."

Symptoms include swollen glands in the neck, fever, extreme tiredness, and sore throat. The liver and spleen can also be affected. It can last a month or longer. Care must be taken during this month to not rupture the spleen.

About 50% show no symptoms.
No cure.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Every year, there are 15 million new cases of disease that are spread through sexual contact.
There are over 75 kinds of sexually transmitted diseases.

STD's are transmitted through an exchange of bodily fluids during sexual contact.

Sexual abstinence is the only, true, protection against sexual transmitted diseases.

1 out of 5
americans may have an STD
Common STD's
Chlamydia
- Some people show no symptoms, especially women. Others have discharge from genitals, painful urination, and abdominal pain. Cured with antibiotics.
Human Papilloma Virus
-Genital warts. Can be treated but not cured. Warts can be removed periodically; if left untreated can cause cervical cancer in women.
Genital Herpes
-Outbreaks of painful blisters on genital region. Swelling of genital area, and burning during urination. Cannot be cured. Drugs can be taken to help reduce the length and frequency of outbreaks.
HIV and AIDS
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
- a viral disease that destroys the body's immune system.

HIV is the virus that, when your immune system deteriorates to a certain level, leads to the disease called AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

Once acquired, the HIV virus can stay dormant in a person's system for years before any symptoms appear. This is known as an
incubation
period.

(Usually 6 months before HIV, shows up on an STD test)

First case was reported in
California in 1981
. In parts of Africa, as many as one in every four people are infected.

People think HIV came from the African Green Monkey, and somehow infected a hunter who was slaughtering the monkey for food. Studies show first possible cases date back to 1959.

Spread by: sexual contact, sharing of needles, blood transfusion, mother to unborn child.
Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases
*
Wash your hands regularly with warm water.
*
Avoid contact with people who have a contagious infection.
*
Do not eat or drink after others.
*
Balanced diet, proper sleep, and exercise
*
Getting your shots!-Vaccines can protect you from many contagious illnesses. (measles, mumps, polio, chickenpox)
Full transcript