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Society and Culture in Pre-Revolution Iran
Transcript of Society and Culture in Pre-Revolution Iran
Phases of Art
Role of Women
The shah we was able to unveil the women of Iran
Marriage for women was set at the age of 15
When there where talks about revolution in the late 1970’s women supported the Islamic revolution, without knowing that any freedom, equality or dignity women had was about to be swallowed by the Islamic Republic
“women encouraged men; our nation is indebted to our brave women’s courage".
Prerevolution social studies textbooks paid great attention to the Shah.
Cover pages were followed by portraits of the Shah, his wife, and son.
Textbooks were divided into geography, history, and civics.
The history section contained detailed descriptions of the coronation of the Shah, his marriage, the birth of his son, and the modernization policy (White Revolution)
is one of the oldest religions still existing today. It began as the religion of the small nation of the Hebrews, and through thousands of years of suffering, persecution, dispersion, and occasional victory, has continued to be a profoundly influential religion and culture. Today, 14 million people identify themselves as Jewish.
Society and Culture in Pre-Revolution Iran
By: Elisa Gonzalez, Catalina Santamaria e Isabella Lorduy Ariza
The education was increased of all population
Schools where now billingual
Formal education was limited for the higher classes
Girls did not have to wear veil at school
The religion was always incorporated
Major Categories of Pre Revolution Iranian Music
No fast food or bacon products
Traditionally, rice was most prevalent as a major staple item in the rice growing region of northern Iran, and the homes of the wealthy, while in the rest of the country bread was the dominant staple. The varieties of rice most valued in Persian cuisine are prized for their aroma, and grow in the north of Iran.
Bread was dominant staple for the rest of the country
Some main sides were often vegetables and herbs
Eggplant called the “potato of Iran”
Fresh fruit were eaten often, but not as much as vegetables
Fruit was eaten as a dessert or with meat for a main dish
Dried fruit was used when fresh fruit was not available
Often made cheese and yogurt at home
Yogurt was often combined with other ingredients to make beverages
Common desserts: Ice cream, sorbet, deep – fried pastries, and sugar - coated nuts
They drank tea all over the country but was drank at different times in different regions.
Traditional table settings and etiquette The traditional Iranian table setting firstly involves the tablecloth, called sofreh, and is spread out over a Persian rug or table. Main dishes are concentrated in the center, surrounded by smaller dishes containing appetizers, condiments, side dishes, as well as bread, all of which are nearest to the diners. These latter dishes are called mokhalafat (accompaniments). When the food has been served, an invitation is made to all those seated at the sofreh to help themselves. Many Iranians continue to use bread or rice to eat their meals.
The noted influence of European and American culture before the Islamic Revolution has also imparted preparations such as bechamel, gigots, milanesas and others to Iran.The outstanding characteristic of modern Iranian cookery is its conservatism. The much discussed craze for Western things (Gharb-zadagi) has had little or no effect on the people’s eating habits. In this field, Iranian cultural resistance to Western influences has shown particular strength.
Sports and athletic exercises were among the most fundamental daily pursuits of the people in Ancient Iran
The society attached special status to sportsmen who thanks to their physical strength and courage, defended their family and homeland when the need arose.
According to their religious teaching, the Iranian Zoroastrians in their prayers sought first the beauties of heaven and then physical strength and mental power. They believed in a healthy and powerful body.
Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally regarded as Iran's national sport.
From 1970 onwards, Iran’s recreation centres began to establish women’s football teams. The Taj Recreation Centre was the first club to train women, followed by Persepolis, Deyhim, and Oghab. With the increase in the number of teams opening up to women, football continued to gain momentum amongst women athletes throughout the 1970s, with more girls picking up the sport every year.
Since 1979, women athletes have been subject to strict requirements when competing in Iran or abroad, with the Iranian Olympic Committee stating that "severe punishment will be meted out to those who do not follow Islamic rules during sporting competitions".
In ancient Iran musicians held socially respectable positions.
Dastgah is the music of those who have a greater affect to be in possession of refined taste and high culture and as such, has always been the preserve of the elite.
Religious music as a category for music is not (in music terms), a homogeneous genre.
The Shiite music has its beginnings in the martial music of Iran.
The recitation of the Koran is not considered music by Muslims, but something more sublime.
In the time of Shah Iranian women could sing, dance and have videos.
Bar or cabaret music was one of the most popular music in that age.
Also Iranian traditional and classic music were active as other music bands too.
Beside of them, pop singers were so popular and active. They performed concerts and recorded videos. International classical music orchestras had also activities and concerts.
“Court of Shah supported musicians, especially pop singers and cabaret ones. However, the situation of Tehran Symphonic Orchestras, different national and traditional orchestras were high and worthy too”
Zoroastrians in Iran are the oldest religious community of the nation, with a long history continuing up to the present day.
Zoroastrianism are the primary religion of Iran.
Islam is a monotheistic religion based on revelations received by the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century, which were later recorded in the Koran.
today Islam is the second largest religion in the world. The Arabic word islam means "submission," reflecting the religion's central tenet of submitting to the will of God
Farhat, Hormoz (2004). The Dastgah Concept in Persian Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54206-5.
Lawergren, Bo (2009). "Music in Iranian land, history. i. Pre-Islamic Iran". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
The head of the household is the father and husband. He expects obedience and respect from the members of the family
Also has the obligation to support and satisfy them spiritually, socially and material needs.
In the Iranian family the father became the focus of love and affections, therefore the members of the family created a strong sense of duty towards him.
The Shia religious law defined the marriage regulations.
The legal marriage age was raised to 18 for women and 21 for males.
However these minimum ages were really not effectively enforced.
The parents of the bride and the groom determined the the marriage partner.
The marriage was determined by customary preference, economic circumstances and geographic considerations.
The bride and groom could not meet before the actual marriage.
Women got married much younger than men. Therefore it was used that women were 10 or 15 years younger than their husbands.
During Mohammed Reza Pahlavi regime,
the Family Protection Act of 1967
Under the Islamic law the Iranian man was allowed to have five wife’s,
The 1967 FPA laws stated that a man could not take a second wife without the consent of the courts.
Under the FPA laws, divorce was only granted through the courts.
Only when it was apparent that no reconciliation could be achieved.
Divided upon the different dynasties of Iran.
Achamenid dynasty (550-333 BC)
Architecture was developed through friezes of the Assyrian and Babylonian styles. Introduced works in gold, silver and bronze castings.
Sassanian Dynasty (AD 224 – 642)
Richest period of artistic developments. Work with jewelry by using metalwork with silver, gold and bronze. Ceramics introduced. Palaces decorated with relief sculptures and mosaics.
Timurid dynasty (1369 – 1506) - Muslim Style
Development of ceramics and ornate calligraphy. The creation of Persian miniatures.
Safavid Dynasty (1506 -1736) Persian Style.
Strong colors, firm lines and lot of details. Miniatures used in great scale. Silk was developed- famous Persian
carpets were created. Palaces decorated with murals. This dynasty marked the beginning of Iran’s artistic decline because of the Western influence, within it.
Persian Miniature Paintings
Qajar Dynasty (1781 – 1925)
The influence of art in this period came from the Safavid dynasty.
The fact that Iran was starting to contemplate the European influence, the period of realism arrived to Iran with the influence of oil painting especially from Reubens and Rembrandt.
Heavy application of paint and dark, rich and saturated colors was seen.
Paintings depicted inanimate objects and still life’s. However humans beings were also depicted and idealized within the artworks.
Many of the painting were done of the Shahs themselves.
Women were also depicted, but this was controversial as women wore very modest clothes in these paintings.
Calligraphy became one of the most important form of arts. It became one of the most important Islamic expressions.
The Nasta’liq style of calligraphy was created.
Silk and textile arts were developed in this period.
Before the revolution the clergy of Iran rejected cinema
Cinema was one of the art forms that was completely forbidden
The representation of women and love within films upset the delicate dualism that had long been seen in these topics within the country.
The ambiguity of language had been effectively used within poetry however within the graphic arts, both the language and the form demanded transparency and directness in order to portray an idea when looking into topics such as women and love.
Women were therefore taken from films and men started playing female roles
With the modernization of Reza Shah, women and cinema took again a very important place in culture and women and even love stories started to be integral to the film industry.
By the 1950 to 70’s, 25 commercial films were produced annually and they focused on melodrama and thrillers.
Other movies: the Bride of the Sea (1965), Siavash at Persepolis (1967), The Brick and the Miror (1967)