Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Network Rail presentation

No description
by

Graham Spiller

on 24 June 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Network Rail presentation

Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)
The essential and integral part of effective modern Asset Management

Presented by Atkins
in Association with Network Rail

Today’s Purpose
To inform you regarding:
What RCM is and how it is applied
How RCM fits in with Risk Based Maintenance (RBM) and the Asset Management lifecycle
RCM benefits and pitfalls
RCM current efforts and successes
How Senior Management can enable the success of RCM inside Network Rail

Network Rail Vision:

“To provide a safe, reliable and efficient railway”
Mark Carne
CEO Network Rail

Supporting RBM
Risk Based Maintenance (RBM) has been identified in the Strategic Business Plan as one of Network Rail's top 5 business objectives and is therefore a key priority.
An RCM capability is required if maintenance is to be optimised and if safety and effective servicing are to be ensured.
Roles that will play a key part have been identified and they need to be trained to gain an appreciation of the risk approach to better target critical assets with the right type and level of maintenance.
Route RCM capability is required to optimise the appropriate intervention for a safe, reliable and cost-effective management of our assets.


The RBM Business Objective
To ensure we reach our required reliability and availability targets, the development of an RBM strategy needs to ensure that each maintenance activity is consistent with:
operating requirements
cost
system reliability
maintainability
duty cycles
design requirements

Asset Management Lifecycle Activities
Supporting your Route’s RCM Activities
RCM is a key element in the RBM objective and needs continued support.
RCM cannot be introduced or applied without knowledgeable people being trained in the process.
RCM cannot be introduced or applied without making these people available to carry out the process.
RCM Training
The RCM process relies on Local and Technical knowledge of the equipment and systems being used.

The training programme is underway and may need to be extended to any other disciplines or participants deemed valuable to the RCM initiative.

The Evolution of Maintenance Thinking
Safety and Risk
Maintenance issues have been at the root of a number of recent high profile accidents...

Piper Alpha 1988

Hatfield 2000

Buncefield 2005

Potters Bar 2002

Bhopal 1984

Traditional maintenance thinking
1. Equipment/assets become more unreliable as they get older.
2. Maintenance involves preserving assets/equipment.
3. Proactive maintenance is about preventing failures.
4. Maintenance tasks are either predictive, preventive or corrective.
5. Similar assets/equipment should have similar maintenance.

6. A good maintenance strategy needs to be based on good failure history/data.
7. The frequency of any condition monitoring should be based on the assets reliability or criticality.
8. Maintenance strategies should be based on manufacturers recommendations.
9. Calendar shutdowns enable organisations to increase Availabilities and Reliabilities.
10. The more often you check something the safer it will be.
Challenging traditional thinking
Do equipment/assets become more unreliable as they get older?
10 day RCM Facilitator training March 2014

The Reality of Equipment Failure
The Reality of Equipment Failure
Challenging traditional thinking
Top speed - 142 mph (can)
Required speed - 70 mph(ish) (want)
Does maintenance involve preserving assets/equipment?
Users want their assets to continue to do what they want them to do (their Functions)
The Objective of Maintenance
Standalone
Different maintenance strategies are appropriate for different functions, albeit the same asset.
Functional role
Duty
Standby
Preventive Maintenance?

Proposed maintenance strategy

No Scheduled Maintenance?

Functional check?

The Objective of Maintenance
The objective of maintenance is to continue to satisfy the users requirements. Maintenance is
more about preserving the functions of assets and managing consequence of failures
, rather than just caring for or preserving the asset/equipment.


Challenging traditional thinking
Schedules and regular Inspections to establish status are classed as proactive tasks.
Is proactive maintenance just about preventing failures?
Proactive Maintenance
Such tasks are carried out (in part) to prevent failures but in the real world we cannot prevent all failures. We should concentrate our efforts on preventing the consequence of such failures.
Challenging traditional thinking
Predictive: C
ondition Based Maintenance (or Remote Condition Monitoring)
Are maintenance tasks only predictive, preventive or corrective?
Preventive: t
asks based on a ‘hard time’ life and undertaken to prevent the failure being experienced.

Maintenance Task Types
Corrective
: Fixing things when found to have failed or found to be in the process of failing.

Functional Check (aka Detective Maintenance).
Protective devices may represent as much as 70% of the plant under our control.

Challenging traditional thinking
Standalone
Remember – 3 identical assets, used in different ways, will require different maintenance to continue to do what we want them to do.
Similar maintenance can only be applied to similar equipments whose operating context, functions and performance standards are the same.
Functional role
Duty
Standby
Preventive Maintenance?

Proposed maintenance strategy

No Scheduled Maintenance?

Functional check?

Should similar assets/equipment have similar maintenance?
Challenging traditional thinking
Good maintenance practices lead to fewer failures and therefore less failure data becomes available.

Failures with serious consequences are addressed by organisations in every possible way available to them and there is therefore less information available about serious issues than that associated with lesser problems.

The belief we need data is based on the premise that everything must have a life. Not true – good quality data should be used when available.
Should a good maintenance strategy be based on good failure history/data?

Failure Data
Using average life data for determining schedules guarantees 50% of our failures will occur.
The failure reporting data that we have available often varies in quality.
What is key is the data we need on failure deterioration to help with condition monitoring. This is never on record as no one likes to run to failure just so we can complete our data banks.

Challenging traditional thinking (Q7)
Reliability, often MTBF cannot be safely used. 50% of assets will have failed before inspection!
Should the frequency of any condition monitoring be based on the assets reliability and/or criticality?
Challenging traditional thinking
Standalone
Manufacturers recommendations will be identical for each generator set.
The spares holding they suggest will also be the same.
Warrantees are important considerations.
Functional role
Duty
Standby
Preventive Maintenance?

Proposed maintenance strategy

No Scheduled Maintenance?

Functional check?

Should maintenance strategies be based on manufacturer’s recommendations?
Challenging traditional thinking
A calendar shutdown period cannot be justified without confidence in “life” data.

Shutdowns have historically been planned to only disassemble and reassemble plant and with little focus on managing failure, thereby inducing failure.

Regular downtime or access to carry out maintenance, is obviously a necessity in any maintenance strategy. A question to ask is whether it is used to manage (prevent) failure or make a better job of our earlier “quick fixes”.
Do calendar shutdowns enable organisations to increase Availabilities and Reliabilities?
Challenging traditional thinking
Choice of condition monitoring period does not impact on the period of failure deterioration.

How often you check a safety device will no doubt have an impact on its availability and the level of acceptable risk of not having the necessary protection, but it is the required availability and reliability that should drive the frequency of such checks.

If you check something more frequently will it be safer?
The Way Forward
What is Reliability-Centred Maintenance (RCM)?

RCM is a process used to determine what must be done to ensure that equipment fulfils its intended function in its operating context, given the failure characteristics of the equipment.
RCM has been developed from the civil aviation industry and provides a process that is; safety focussed, cost effective, robust and auditable.

SAE JA1011/1012
RCM is a Process
Structured
Auditable
A record of how you came to your decision
Logical steps are utilised to arrive at outcomes
It utilises an algorithm for ease of application


Typical RCM Analysis Group
The RCM Process
The RCM process involves answering seven basic questions about the equipment for which a maintenance strategy is required:

The RCM Process
The RCM process and the outcomes are recorded
on two worksheets:
Functions
Q1
Functional Failures
How can it fail to do this?
What do we want the equipment to do?
Q2
Failures and Performance Standards
Defining Functional Failures
Functional Failures can be described in simple terms such as:

Car unable to move
Unable to reach required speed
Oil temperature too high
Etc.
Failure Modes
What causes the equipment to fail?
Q3
Describing Failure Modes
Bearing misaligned (human error)
Pipe corrodes
Oil seal deteriorated
Pipe accidentally damaged
Drive belt wears
Punctured tyre due to debris
Etc.
Failure Effects
What happens when a failure occurs?
Q4
Describing Failure Modes
A Functional Failure is a “failed state” whereas a Failure Mode is an ‘event’ that causes the Functional Failure.
For example:

Bearing misaligned (human error).
Pipe corrodes.
Pipe erodes.
Pipe accidentally damaged.
Drive belt wears.
What To Include?
Failure Effects should cover/include:

Any evidence that the failure is about to occur (e.g. heat, noise, vibration, etc.)
Any evidence that the failure has occurred (e.g. engine stops, alarms, etc.)
Any action taken by the operator to isolate or mitigate the failure
Ways in which the failure may threaten safety or the environment
Ways in which the failure may threaten production/operation
Any secondary damage caused by the failure and estimate of costs.
The repair action and downtime required to repair the failure (estimated costs).

Failure Consequences
How does the failure matter?
Q5
Dealing with Failure Consequences
Failure management is more to do with understanding the consequences of failure and, if appropriate, preventing the failure occurring.
RCM Decision Logic – Level 1
Safety and Environmental Consequences
A Failure Mode has Safety Consequences if the resulting loss of function could cause harm, injury or death.
Operational Consequences
A Failure Mode has Operational Consequences if it has a direct adverse impact on operational capability (i.e. it will incur direct or indirect costs). For example:

Zero/reduced output
Quality issues
Poor customer service
Increased operating costs (energy consumption, conversion efficiency, etc.)

For Failure Modes with Operational Consequences, preventive actions are only worth doing if they are effective and their overall costs are less than the overall cost of the failures they are designed to prevent.
Non-operational Consequences
If a Failure Mode has no Safety, Environmental or Operational Consequences the only consequence is the cost of repair.

For Failure Modes with Non-operational Consequences, preventive actions are only worth doing if they are effective and their overall costs are less than the cost of repairing the failures they are designed to prevent.
RCM Decision Logic – Level 1
Consequences of hidden failures
Fire extinguishers
Buffer stops
Guard rails
Emergency stops
Grayrigg 2007

A Functional Failure is a “failed state” whereas a Failure Mode is an ‘event’ that causes the Functional Failure.

Wheel bearing gets noisy
Engine stops
Reduction of speed to return home safely
Risk of an accident
Etc.
Hidden Failure Consequences
The consequences of a Hidden Failure will not become apparent to the operator during normal operation.
The consequences of a Hidden Failure will only become apparent after another failure or unusual event has occurred (in the absence of conducting a fault finding task).
Hidden Failure Example
Summary of the ‘Worth-Doing’ Question
Safety and Environmental Consequences:
Must reduce the probability of failure to a tolerable level.
Operational Consequences:
Its cost must be less than the overall cost of failure.

Proactive Failure Management
Q6
Can the failure be predicted or prevented?
RCM Decision Logic
RCM Decision Logic
Proactive Failure Management - Options
There are three categories of proactive maintenance activities:

Scheduled Restoration (SR).
Equipment is ‘restored’ (e.g. overhauled) at fixed intervals, regardless of condition.
Scheduled Discard (SD).
Equipment is ‘discarded’ (i.e. replaced) at fixed intervals, regardless of condition.
On-condition Maintenance (OCM).
Equipment is ‘checked’ at fixed, regular intervals to determine if a condition exists that indicates the equipment is in the process of ‘failing’.
Schedules
There are rules to make the judgement of whether such tasks are technically feasible.
Condition Monitoring -Potential Failure Curve
On-condition tasks can apply to any of the 6 failure consequence categories and are not related to the age of the equipment

On-Condition Monitoring
There are rules to judge the technical feasibility for condition monitoring tasks as well. Such as:
Other Failure Management Options
Q7
How should the failure be managed if prediction or prevention is not a viable option?
Default Strategies
If a technically feasible AND worth doing proactive task cannot be found, there are a number of default strategies available depending on the consequences of failure:
Carry out a combination of proactive tasks (i.e. a combination of OCM, SR and SD tasks).
‘No Scheduled Maintenance’ (i.e. allow the equipment to fail).
Redesign to either eliminate or mitigate the consequences of failure.
Carry out a Failure Finding task. (This option relates to Hidden failures)
Failure Finding
We need to know if our spare tyre is useable should it be required.
There are also technical feasibility rules for failure finding tasks.
Summary of Task Interval Selection Criteria
Scheduled Restoration and Scheduled Discard Tasks:
Carried out at intervals determined by the “Life” of the Failure Mode.
On-Condition Tasks:
Carried out at intervals less than the P-F interval.
Failure Finding Tasks:
Carried out at intervals determined by the desired availability and reliability of the protective device.
Network Rail successes so far…
Driver Only Operated CCTV
Before:
3-monthly task to open up and check the heater in camera enclosure.
>4000 housings, ~ £22/task
The task itself introduces the potential for failure
After:
Task is nugatory - NSM
Network Rail successes so far…
Bristol - Exeter CWR
Before:
2-weekly Basic Visual Inspection + 8-weekly Supervisors; Inspection, trending incipient failure down to L2 Intervention limit
After:
13-weekly targeted inspection and intervention if required:
Increased likelihood of root cause repair
Reduced risk of short notice work
Safety
Operational
Summary of Task Interval Selection Criteria
On-Condition Tasks:
Carried out at intervals less than the P-F interval.
Scheduled Restoration and Scheduled Discard Tasks:
Carried out at intervals determined by the “Life” of the Failure Mode.
Failure Finding Tasks:
Carried out at intervals determined by the desired availability and reliability of the protective device.
Network Rail successes so far…
Automatic Warning System

Original task:
Check Terminals every 91 days - requiring access into termination box, resulting in seal damage and moisture ingress, leading to internal corrosion and damage.

The Benefits of RCM
The reasons for adopting RCM varies from industry to industry:
Improve safety
Improve availability/reliability
Improve throughout/efficiency
Improve effectiveness of resources
Reduce costs

RCM achieves all of the above (and more) as an integrated package.
RCM over an asset’s life cycle
RCM outputs are plant specific
Changes in operating contexts need to be monitored
Performance expectations may change in time
More knowledge on Failure Modes becomes available
Evidence/knowledge of failures improve
New condition monitoring techniques are continuously being developed and made available
New condition monitoring techniques become available

All such changes suggest the need for updates.
Questions and Answers
Information on Route Tactical Champions is available through the generic email box at
rbmsupport@networkrail.co.uk
Key steps to successful implementation
Senior management leading and driving policy change and raising awareness and influencing behaviours.
Union representatives engaged to appreciate value of RCM being “the right maintenance on the right asset at the right time” enabling safe and reliable operation
Identified individuals trained to a suitable level.
Route Tactical Champions to drive implementation of RCM and share best practice.
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8
Q9
Q10
Senior Management can support and be party to the identification and selection of the systems and equipment to be analysed, to ensure success.
By championing the implementation of RCM across Network Rail, Senior Management can help to ensure the rigorous and auditable approach to setting effective maintenance where it is needed.
What do we want the equipment to do? (Functions)
How can it fail to do this? (Functional Failures)
What causes the equipment to fail? (Failure Modes)
What happens when a failure occurs (Failure Effects)
How does the failure matter? (Failure Consequences)
Can the failure be predicted or prevented? (Proactive Failure Management)
How should the failure be managed if prediction or prevention is not a viable option? (Other Failure Management Options)
Non-operational Consequences:
Its cost must be less than the cost of repair.
Hidden Consequences:
Must reduce the probability of the multiple failure to a tolerable level and be cost effective for failures with Operational and Non-operational consequences.
New task:
NSM on AWS. Justification - every train that passes over the magnet effectively tests the AWS system. There is maintenance on tail cables and terminations, but from a safe position.
Proactive maintenance is about avoiding, eliminating or preventing the consequences of failure not about preventing failures.

Monitoring condition is an essential task and (excluding continuous monitoring possibilities) it is the rate of deterioration that determines how often we should be checking the condition of assets, to intervene
before
the failure occurs.
The answers to questions 1 to 4 are recorded on a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) worksheet.
The answers to questions 5 to 7 are determined using the decision logic algorithm and recorded on Maintenance task Selection worksheet.
In Network Rail, studies are currently documented using proprietary RCM software.
Therefore, any preventive action is only worth doing if it deals successfully with the consequences of failure.
We need to make an assessment of the consequences of each failure to provide a basis for determining whether or not any preventive action is worth doing.
A Failure Mode has Environmental Consequences if the resulting loss of function could result in the failure to comply with legislative or environmental standards.
For Failure Modes with Safety and Environmental Consequences, preventive actions are only worth doing if they are effective and reduce the probability of failure to a tolerable level.
For Failure Modes with Hidden Consequences, preventive actions are only worth doing if they are effective and reduce the probability of the multiple failure to a tolerable level.
Collection and use of the right data which will contribute to informing better decisions towards managing our assets.
Longer term costs of the asset is considered in maintenance analysis e.g. spend to save, trend analysis, Whole of Life Cost analysis etc.
Integration of RCM based analysis results into the Business Critical Rules (BCR) initiative.

Plan and take responsibility for making this business as usual.
The Benefits of RBM
Savings demonstrated by other industries include:
It is estimated that by the implementation of RBM, Network Rail could achieve potential financial savings in the range of 14% to 20% of direct asset maintenance costs, in addition to a 5% reduction of the indirect costs.
This compares well with the 15% to 25% achieved in other heavily regulated industries.
Feedback
It will allow us to deliver a higher level of service to all.
(Paul Beckett, TME, Bletchley)
RBM will be rewarding and worthwhile.
(Andy Franklin, RAM, Track)
Western route are now experiencing the benefits.
(Steve Pearson, RAM, Track)
We already do it but not in a structured and logical way that this system brings.
(Section Managers' Conference)
The RBM process is a common sense engineering approach.
(Andrew Cain, Section Manager, Track)
Extract from ISO 55000
PAS 55 Overview for reference

There has to be a life. So for example say 20k miles for a tyre and so we act at 20k miles.
A restoration task has to provide the same performance, so if it is judged that the re-tread gives you the same performance, a re-tread task is selected.
The discard rules are simpler as they will always provide you with the original performance.
You need to have a clear potential failure defined (i.e. you must know what you’re looking for). Perhaps a 3mm depth of tread.
The checking period has to be shorter than the P-F interval.
There has to be a consistent P-F interval that is long enough in which to do something when the potential failure is found.
The task must not destroy the item.
It has to be possible to do the check without the risk of incurring the multiple failure.
It has to be practical to carry out the task at the proposed interval.
The Way Forward

What is Reliability-Centred Maintenance (RCM)?

RCM is a process used to determine what must be done to ensure that equipment fulfils its intended function in its operating context, given the failure characteristics of the equipment.
RCM has been developed from the civil aviation industry and provides a process that is safety focussed, cost effective, robust and auditable.
Today's Challenges
Improve performance
Reduce Spend
Deliver more
Reduce access demands
Reduce safety risk
Reduce workforce exposure
Demonstrate control
Full transcript