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Water, Water, but not everywhere.....

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by

Amy Hatcher

on 19 August 2013

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Transcript of Water, Water, but not everywhere.....

Emergency Crisis Briefing
Desertification is a sweeping environmental problem, with vast effects in countries such as Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Iran. Universal causes for a spread of arid environment are unsustainable agriculture practices and overgrazing.

Agriculture uses 85 percent of water in this region. It is also common to misuse land by heavy irrigation in the Middle East. Droughts are frequent in this region of the world, and contribute to the changing landscape. The overuse of water in agriculture is affecting the countries' already undersized water resources.


Tip of the Iceberg
Water, Water, but not everywhere.....
Water Crisis in the Middle East
Desertification in Iraq
The Middle East has experienced many environmental concerns lately. Water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, especially for the millions there who already lack access to sanitary water. Some of these countries, including Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq, are facing unique problems that require global, immediate attention. Beside their neighboring location , one shared factor of all these countries is their lack of water resources and poor water management.

Even though the Middle East has some of the largest oil reserves in the world it requires water resources and suitable land for agriculture. Much of the land that is available for producing food is destroyed by increasing desertification.


Rainfall amounts decreased dramatically in the 1990's
Jordan, located in the Syrian Desert, and Yemen, on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, both endure severe water scarcity in the Middle East. The cost of water in Jordan increased thirty percent in ten years, due to a quick shortage of groundwater.



Yemen has one of the highest worldwide rates of malnutrition; over thirty percent of its population does not meet their food needs . In recent years, Yemen has not been able to produce enough food to sustain its populations. Water scarcity has damaged the standard of living for inhabitants of the Middle East.
PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS
“Acceptable” = 1000 cubic meters per year
Unites States = 1,700 cubic meters per year
Jordan = 180 cubic meters per year

Water per Person

Rapid population growth
Egypt grows by 1 million people every 9 months!

Population Growth

Too much water being used to gain too little food!

Agriculture

Increasingly polluted
Soil run-off of pesticides
Oil drilling contaminates water
For example: The Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile are all polluted


Pollution

Turkey, Syria, Iraq
India, Pakistan
Jordan, Israel

These nations all share rivers which could cause conflict!

Water Wars

Indian and Pakistan already are angered over nuclear testing, add the issue of how to share water and you have the potential for nuclear war!

King Hussein of Jordan says water is the one issue that “could drive the nations of this region to war.”

Prime Minister of Israel says, “Israel is headed towards a mess in water.”

Desalination

Desalination plants are an overuse of water resources in the Middle East. Seventy percent of desalination plants in the world are located in this area, found mostly in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Bahrain. While the plants produce water needed for the arid region, they can manufacture problems for health and the environment. The seawater used most in desalination plants has high amounts of boron and bromide, and the process can also remove essential minerals like calcium. Also, the concentrated salt is often dumped back into oceans where the increased salinity affects the ocean's environment. The plants harm local wildlife and add pollutants to the region's climate. In addition, desalination is the most energy-costing water resource.

Possible Solutions

Use less water
Don’t waste
water

Conservation

Purchase from other countries
Water pipelines
Expensive, requires cooperation
Easy terrorist targets

Imports

Cleaning and reusing water
Can still be contaminated

Treated Wastewater

Desalination

Desalination plants are an overuse of water resources in the Middle East. Seventy percent of desalination plants in the world are located in this area, found mostly in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Bahrain. While the plants produce water needed for the arid region, they can manufacture problems for health and the environment. The seawater used most in desalination plants has high amounts of boron and bromide, and the process can also remove essential minerals like calcium. Also, the concentrated salt is often dumped back into oceans where the increased salinity affects the ocean's environment. The plants harm local wildlife and add pollutants to the region's climate. In addition, desalination is the most energy-costing water resource.

Possible Solutions

Storing rainwater
Cloud seeding
Harnessing icebergs

Alternate Water Sources

1. Discuss with your table group the paragraphs you I just read and summarize in one sentence the problem.
2. Discuss two countries that are struggling with their water supply and name the water supplies of each country.
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