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The Nervous System

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by

Liz Couch

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of The Nervous System

The Nervous System
epilepsy
seizure disorder of the brain, characterized by recurring andx discharge from neurons
seizures believed to be result of spontaneous, uncontrolled electrical activity of neurons.
cause-uncertain
victim may hallucinations and seizures
grand mal- severe, convulsive seizure
petit mal- milder.
disorders of the nervous system
meningitis
inflammation of the lining of the brain and the spinal cord
may be bacterial or viral
symptoms- headache, feverm and stiff neck
in severe form, may ead to paralysis, coma and death
if bacterial, may be treated with antibiotics.
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
cause- viral or chemical
symptoms0 fever, lethargy, extreme weakness, visual disturbances.
Sensory Neurons (Afferent)
- Emerge from the skin or sense organs, cary impulses to spinal cord and brain.
Neurilemna (Myelin Sheath)
- Covering that speeds up the nerve impulse along the axon.
- Myelin is a fatty substance tht protects the axon.
Axon
- Carries impulse away from cell body.
- Only one on a neuron
Dendrites
- Nerve cell processes that carry impulse to cell body
- May be one or many
Central Nervous System
- Communication and coordination system of the body.
- Seat of intellect and reasoning.
- Consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
NEURON
- Nerve cell
- Transmits a message from one cell to the next
- Has a nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.


cerebral palsy

disturbance in voluntary muscular action due to brain damage.
may be due to birth injury and abnormal brain develoment
spastic quadriplegia- spastic paralysis in all limbs
symps- head rolling, grimacing, difficult speech, and swallowing.
no impairment of intellect.
Motor Neurons (Efferent)
- Carry messages from brain and spinal cord to mucles and glands.
poliomyelitis
diseases of nerve pathways of spinal cord- causing paralysis
almost eliminated in USA (vaccine)
Associative Neurons (Interneurons)
hydrocephalus
increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid witchin ventricles of the brain
usually, blockage in 3rd or 4th ventricle
enlargement of head, usually noticed at birth
bypass or shunt performed to relieve pressure.
parkinson's disease
symps- tremors, shuffling gait, pill-rolling, and muscular rigidity.
decrease in neurotransmitter dopamine
rx- l-dopa and other drugs to treat symptoms.
multiple sclerosis (MS)
symps- tremors, shuffling gait, pill-rolling, and muscular rigidity.
decrease in neurotransmitter dopamine
rx- l-dopa
chronic inflammatory disease of CNS
immune cells attack myelin sheath of axon- myelin sheath destroyed, leaving scar tissue on nerve cells
transmission of nerve impullses blocked
cause- unknown
symps- weakness of extremitites , numbness, double vision, nystagmus, speech problems, loss of coordination, possible paralysi
typically strikes young adults age 20-40 mostly women
rx- avonex- slows pregression.
- Carry impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons.
Synapse
- Space between neurons, messages go from one cell to the next
dementia
loss of 2 areas of complex behavior, such as language, memory, visual and spatial abilities, or judgement
interferes with person's daily life
alzheimer's disease
Division of the Nervous Systems
1. Central Nercous System- brain and spinal cord.
2. Peripheral Nevous System- cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
3. Autonomic Nervous System- Includes peripheral nerves and ganglia, supplies heart muscle, smooth muscle and secretory glands, involuntary action
progresssive disease that begins with problems remembering
nerve endings in cortex of brain degenerate and block signals that pass between nerve cells
abnormal fibers build up creating tangles
cause-unknown
first stage (2-4 years) involves confusion, short-term memory loss, anxiety, poor judgement
2nd stage (2-10 years) increase in memory loss, difficulty recognizing people, tor problems, logic problems, and loss of social skills
3rd stage (1-3 years) inability to recognize onself, weight loss seizures, mood swings and aphasia.
neuritis
inflammation of a nerve
symps- severe pain, hypersensitivity, loss of sensation, muscular atrophy and weakness, parathesia (tingling, burning, and crawling of skin)
causes- may be infectious, chemical or because of other conditions
rx- eliminate cause, analgesics
bell's palsy
7th cranial nerve involved
victim seems to have a stoke on one side of the face (eye does not close properly, the mouth droops, numbmness on the effected side)
cause- unknown
symptoms disappear within a few weeks.
The Brain
paralysis- loss of power of motion or sensation
hemiplegia- aralysis on one side of the body
quadriplegia- paralysis all four extremities
- 3 lb mass of soft nervous tissue
- 100 billion neuron
- Protected by skull, three membranes called meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid
- Adequate blood supply is needed, brain tisue will die 4-8 mins
- Divided into 4 major parts: cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem
diagnostic tests
electroencephal (EEG) - recording of the electrical activity of the brain
cat scan- (computerized axial tomography)- combines x-ray emission with nuclear medicine- produces cross- sectional images
MRI- magnetic reasonance imaging- uses a magnetic field along with radio frequency to produce cross-section images of the body. patient inserted into chamber built with huge magnet.
cerebral vascular accident
stroke or CVA
interruption of blood and oxygen to brain
tissue death
third leading clause of death in USA
risk factors
smoking
hypertension
heart disease
family history
causes of CVA
Coverings of the Brain (Meninges)
- Dura Mater- outer brain covering, lines the inside of the skull tough dense fibrous connective tissue,
- Subdural Space- between dura and arachnoid.
- Arachnoid- middle layer, resembles fine cobweb.
- Pia Mater- covers the brain's surface, comprised of blood vessels held together by connective tissue.
90% caused by blood clots
clots lodge in carotoid arteries, blocking the flow of blood to the brain
10% caused by ruptured blood vessels.
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Subarachnoid Space
between arachnoid and pia meter, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID- acts as a liquid shock absorber and source of nutrients for the brain.
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