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Unit 17 - Personality and Motivation on Sports Performance

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Marcus Cook

on 18 April 2017

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Transcript of Unit 17 - Personality and Motivation on Sports Performance

Personality effects on Sports Performance
There is no direct link between personalty type and successful sporting performance. Some research has suggested that certain personality types may be more attracted to certain sports. But, there is little to say that your personality will make you a better athlete.

Athlete Vs non-athletes and individual Vs team sport. Athletes who take part in team sports are more extroverted and individual sports tend to be more introverted.

Elite Vs non-elite athletes. Pyschologists thought that successful athletes display lower levels of depression, fatigue, confusion and anger, but higher levels of vigour.

Type A Vs Type B. - Type A' personalities are more likely to continue when they are not motivated to take part


Unit 17
Psychology for Sports Performances
Personality Types
Type A Vs Type B
Research...
Motivation.
The tendency of an individual or team to begin and then carry on with the activities relating to their sport. There are two main types of motivation.
Sports psychologists suggest that personality traits can be grouped under two headings; Type A and Type B.

People with Type A (extrovert) personalities tend to lack patience, have strong urge for competition, a high desire to achieve goals, always rush to complete activities, will happily multi-task when placed under time constraints, lack tollerance towards others and experience higher levels of anxiety.

People with Type B (introvert) personalities tend to be more tolerant towards others, more relaxed and reflective than their type A counterparts, experience lower levels of anxiety and display higher levels of imagination and creativity.
There are 5 main theories of how personality can affect sports performance - Research your given one ready to present back to the class.

You have 20 minutes to research your given theory.

You presentation of the theory must last 3-5 minutes.

It can be a verbal presentation, PowerPoint, handout or other.

Type A and Type B
Psychodynamic Theory
Trait-Centred Views
Social Learning Theory
Interactional View - Marten's Schematic View
Situation-Centred View
Know the effect of personality and motivation on sports performance.
Lesson Objective:
Know the effect of personality and motivation on sports performance.
Learning Outcomes:

Good: Recall the 5 main theories of personality and sport (P)

Great: Define the 2 types of personality (P)

Even Better: Explain the effects of personality on sports performance (M)

Outstanding: Link the effects of personality, sports performance and theories of personality (D)
Plenary
Can you think of two sports performers, one with a type A personality and one with a type B personality.
Task 1 - (Pass)
Task 2 - (pass/merit)
Task 3 (pass/merit)
Chose one of the 3 questions below to answer.
Make sure your answer is clear and detailed as it will be marked by a peer.

1) Define personality and describe how it influences sport participation and performance (P)

2) Explain two different theories that try to explain the link between personality and sports participation and performance (M)

3)Evaluate contrasting arguments that relate to the link between personality and sports performance (D)
Marten's Schematic Theory - Interactionist View
In this view, personality is seen as having 3 different levels that relate to each other.

Psychological Core -
The real you
(beliefs, values, attitude, interests).

Typical Responses -
Normal responses to the world around you
(shouting when fouled in a game but shy when meeting new people).


Role Related Behaviour -
Determined by circumstance, your personality changes as your perception of your environment changes
(captaining your sports team showing leadership skills, part time job following instructions).
Psychodynamic Theory
The Psychodynamic Thoery believes that personality is made up of the
conscious
and the
unconscious.


Your
unconscious
is made up of your
instinctive drive
- this is part of your personality and will therefore make you do certain things without thinking.
A sprinter on the start line of a 100m race may feel anxiety but then respond instinctively to the gun and sprint.

Your
conscious
is made up of your
ego
and your
super ego
(which is your moral conscious). The effects of your ego and super ego can been seen in sport, for example,
when a footballer refuses to take a penalty as they are scared to let the team down.

Rather than looking at different parts of a personality the Psychodynamic Theory tries to look at an individual as a whole. This approach is not often used in sport as it does not consider environment. However, in relation to sport it helps us to understand that not all behaviour is under conscious control of the athlete.



Trait Centered View
The trait centred view states that individuals have certain characteristics that will partly determine how they behave.

It is argued that traits are mainly inherited and that there are two dimensions of to personality:

Introversion-Extroversion
Stable-Neurotic

Introverts
-
don't actively seek excitement, be in calm environments, prefer tasks that require concentration, dislike the unexpected.

Extroverts
- become board quickly, are poor at tasks that require concentration, constantly seek change and excitement. less responsive to pain and said to be more successful in sport as they can cope with competition and distractions better than introverts.
Stable
-
tend to be more easy going and even tempered.
Neurotic
-
(unstable) tend to be more restless, excitable, are more anxious and more highly aroused.


Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory suggest that personality is not a stable characteristic, but constantly changing as a result of our different social situations.
It is unlikely that an individual will behave the same way in different situations.
In a sporting situation individuals learn through two different processes: modeling and reinforcement.
Behaviour is observed from younger players (modeling) and then repeated (reinforced).
This is done through 4 stages of observational learning -
Attention
- levels of admiration and respect must be had for model being observed.
Retention
- for modeling to be effective the athlete must be able to retain the observed skill or behaviour in their memory and recall it when needed.
Motor Perception
- the athlete must be able to physically perform the task he or she is observing.
Motivational Response
- unless the athlete is motivated, he or she will not go through the first three stages of modeling. This is dependent on the amount of praise, feedback, sense of pride or achievement they feel from replicating the behaviour.
Situational-Centred Views
The situational approach is different from the trait theory as it say the situation is dependent on your situational environment.

For example an athlete may display shyness and tolerance, characteristics of an introvert. However, when in a sporting situation they may display aggression and other extrovert characteristics.
Interaction View
To predict behaviour in a sporting situations you need to consider how the situation and personality traits link and work together - 'the international approach'

The theory states that situation is more likely to predict the outcome of a persons response in a sport environment than their personality traits.
Intrinsic & Extrinsic.
Key Terms

Motivation
- the direction and intensity of your efforts, it is critical to sporting success.

Intrinsic
- internal factors, such as enjoyment.

Extrinsic
- external factors, such as rewards.
Intrinsic motivation - is when someone is participating in an activity without an external reward and/or without primary motivation being the motivation of some form of external reward.

'for fun' or because it makes me feel good'

Motivated by accomplishments
- this occurs when athletes wish to increase their level of skill to get a sense of accomplishment.

Motivated by Stimulation
- this refers to seeking an 'adrenalin rush' or extreme excitement.

Motivated by Knowledge - this means being curious about your own performance, wanting to know more about it and ahving the desire to develop new techniques or skills to benefit performance.
Extrinsic motivation - is when someone behaves the way they do because of some form of external factor.

These external factors come in the form of tangible and intangible rewards.

Tangible rewards
- physical objects - money, medals and trophies.

Intangible rewards
- non-physical things - praise and encouragement.

For extrinsic motivation rewards need to be used effectively. If the reward is given too frequenctly then it no longer becomes a reward. As a coach you need to have an indepeth knowledge of the athlete you are working with.

Extrinsic motivation can effect intrinsic motivation. If the extrinsic motivation is used to control this athlete this can have a negative effect on the intrinsic motivation, HOWEVER, if the extrinsic motivation is used to provide information and feedback then it can have a positive impact on intrinsic motivation.
Plenary
Learning Objective:
Learning Outcomes:
Think about an athlete at the Olympics - intrinsic motivation is their want to be the best and win, their extrinsic motivation is the medal they recieve when winning.

Come up with an example of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation within a sport or sports of your choice.

You have 2 minutes, be prepared to feedback to the group.
Developing a Motivational Climate
The motivational climate is the environment in which an athlete finds themselves and how this affects their motivation positively and negatively.

A motivational climate is focused on mastery of tasks - where athletes receive positive reinforcement and there is a greater focus on team work, cooperation and the process an athletes motivation, effort, learning techniques and attitude will improve.

When an athlete is placed in an environment where there is a lot of focus on the outcome, where they feel they will be punished for mistakes and feel only those of the highest ability and best ability will be recognised and rewarded then this leads to a negative motivational climate. Less effort and persistence is seen from the athlete and they link failure to lack of ability.

To develop and effective motivational climate the TARGET technique is used...
T
ask
A
uthority
R
eward
G
rouping
E
valuation
T
iming

Using the information around the room complete your TARGET information sheet.
Develop an understanding of the effects of motivation on sport.
Good: Recall the two types of motivation (p)
Great: Explain the effects of motivation on sport (m)
Even Better: demonstrate an understanding of motivational climate linking it to sporting examples (m)
Outstanding: Evaluate the effects of motivation on 2 sports performers linking them personality theories.
Using the information you have gathered over the previous two lessons create a motivation, personality calculation wich includes a motivation type, a personality theory, a personality type and a spots performer. Provide an explanation for you given sum. See example below.
Intrinsic Motivation + Interactional View + Type B Personalty = Andy Murray.

I have chosen this as my calculation as Andy Murray is a type B personality as he is very sky and reserved, this is until he gets onto the tennis court. This is why I have chosen to link him with the interation view states that when in a sports situation, the situation is more likely to predict the behaviour outcomes of an athlete and when Andy Murray is on court he no longer demonstrates personality trains of a Type B personality but simply responds to the situation he is in. He is instrinsically motivated as he is not interested in the fame that comes with his success as he is rarely seen in the news for negative or outrageous behaviour off court.
Achievement Motivation Theory
This Theory argues that achievement motivation comes from the individuals personality and is their motivation to strive to success. It is the drive that makes athletes continue trying even when they're obstacles or when they fail.

Nach
- Need to Achieve

NAF
- Need to Avoid Failure
Attribution Theory
This theory looks at how people explain success and failure. It helps you to understand an athletes actions and motivations. (Linking personality theory to motivation).

This theory suggests that attributes of an athlete lead to their success or failure and fall into one of three categories:
Stability (stable or unstable)
Causality (external or internal factors)
Control (under control or not)

(see table 17.1 on page 288)
Effects of Motivation of Sports Performance
Positive
Negative
Over-motivated -
Over-training
Staleness
Burnout
Failure or Loss
Further success
(support from coaches and other support staff)
EXIT TICKETS
Nowadays Sport is more Psychological than Physical? ?


Review of Last Week

What did we cover?


What do you remember?
Task 1 : Complete these Initial Assessments in pairs to see how much you know about Motivation in Sport.

Be prepared to feedback your answers.
In Groups of 3, research the following Motivation Theories.

You have 20 minutes and need to present it back to the rest of the group

Trait-centred view
Situation-centred view
Interactional view
Attribution theory
Achievement motivation
What is Motivation and what does it look like?

What made you get out of bed this morning?

"Those who are motivated are more intelligent and successful"
Full transcript