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Chapter 18 European and American Art 1840-1910
Transcript of Chapter 18 European and American Art 1840-1910
European and American Art
(aprox. 70 years)
The Enlightenment (1650–1800) also known as the Age of Reason or the Age of Rationalism
was a period during the 17th & 18th centuries
when European philosophers stressed the use of reason as the best method for learning the truth.
Advances in communications, manufacturing and transportation
created new and improved products
like the improved steam engine
new wealth for consumers
which created bustling urban centers!
The Industrial Revolution with it's roots in Enlightenment Era Europe
began in England in the 18th century
quickly spread across Europe and North America.
New technology & inventions transformed an agricultural and commercial way of life
into a modern industrial society.
Changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution revolutionized families and lifestyles as the factory system drew workers away from the rural family economy to urban areas.
While this sounds prosperous...
industrialization was not without its downsides.
A. When factories first opened, there was no industrial regulation in place.
Factory smokestacks polluted the European landscape so severely that some regions have yet to recover.
B. Poor, willing workers quickly found themselves working grueling eighteen-hour workdays, receiving unfair wages, and facing brutal disciplinary measures.
without age restrictions on work,
it was frequently young children who had to endure such conditions.
The Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution
What else was going on?
AND...in 1848, the first women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, NY
Dagurreotype of Elizabeth Stanton and daughter
The second half of the 19th century (1850-1900) has been called the "positivist age"
...so what about the second half of the 19th century ...(1850-1900)
It was an age of faith in all knowledge which was rooted from the belief that science and scientific objective methods could solve all human problems.
In the visual arts, this spirit is most obvious in the widespread rejection of Romanticism
imagination in favor of Realism - the accurate and apparently objective description of the ordinary observable world, a change especially evident in painting.
Positivist thinking is evident in the full range of artistic developments after 1850 from the introduction of realistic elements into academic art & the emphasis on the phenomenon of light
to the development of photography
and the application of new technologies in architecture and construction.
As a goal, Realism was bent on not imitating past artistic achievements
but being truthful and accurate
to the depiction of the models that nature and contemporary life offer to the artist.
The NEW IDEA...
ordinary people and everyday activities are worthy subjects for art.
Realism, impressionism and post-impressionism???
The Realists, Impressionists and Post-Impressionists(1800 - 1899)
This is a group of international artists in Paris which begin to devise new methods of pictorial representation. They were focused on scientific concepts of vision and the study of optical effects of light. The Realists expressed both a taste for democracy and rejection of the inherent old artistic tradition. The Realists felt that painters should work from the life around them. Indisputable honest, the Realists desecrated rules of artistic propriety with their new realistic portrayals of modern life.
The French: John Singleton Copley, Gustave Courbet, Edgar Degas, Thomas Eakins, Edouard Manet, Charles Monet, Berthe Morisot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, George Seurat
The Spainards: Antoni Gaudi
The English: William Morris, Phillip Webb, William Holman Hunt, Henry Wallis
The Americans: Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, James Whistler, Timothy O'Sullivan, Henry O. Tanner, Mary Cassett
**The in the latter 19th century realism was challenged...artists in both Europe and the US turned to radically new abstract forms to express their personal feelings about their subjects and turned away the depiction of ordinary, modern life in favor of exploring myths, fantasy and imagination
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
Most major works of public architecture were based on historic examples...called historicism
Modern conditions and materials had an important impact on construction during that period. It was for these reasons that engineers as well as architects felt they could begin to abandon these historic conventions. Materials such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel made the skeletal structures featuring light and space desired by builders possible.
Gustave Eiffel, a civil engineer won a competition for design of a monument that would symbolize French industrial progress. Eiffel, the contractor on the project, originally planned to build the tower in Barcelona, for the Universal Exposition of 1888, but those responsible at the Barcelona city hall thought it was a strange and expensive construction, which did not fit into the design of the city.
Made on iron latticework, the base is four enormous legs reinforced by traced arches similar to those used in railway bridges. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets. The tower has become a global icon of France and is one of the most recognizable structures in the world.
Eiffel Tower Facts
Construction took 2 years, 2 months
height: 1052 feet
the Eiffel Tower is repainted every 7 years and is painted in a slightly different color to give you the impression it is painted on the same color
How many times a day does someone "pop the ?"
Estimated at 175 proposals every day! The first floor has a post office so you can send your announcements and wedding invitations at the same time.
Parachute Descent: 1984 by two Englishmen
Bicycle Descent: 1923 Journalist
Mountaineering Ascent: 1954
Visibility on a clear day: 42 miles
The public loved the tower but artists, architects and writers found it "monstrous" and "ulgy" and worried about the effect the tower would have on future architecture in Paris. It did...Art Nouveau was a spring off of the tower. Art Nouveau was a style that stressed flowing curves and organic shapes and forms
Due to the fatal susceptibility of iron framed buildings to fire...a technique for making an alloy of iron and carbon allowed for new architectural possibilities.
The new light weight steel made taller buildings possible.
This new steel was used in buildings created in the US by the "Chicago School"
( a group of Midwestern architects).
The Chicago School produced a new form of building called the Skyscraper. The result...
Academic art was a
of painting and sculpture that was produced under the influence of European academies or universities.
... and what was
Style is a manner of representing, constructing or expressing ideas which are typical of an individual artist or a certain school or period.
So, just to keep wrap up...
Art influenced by academies and universities is called "academic art".
In this context, as new styles are embraced by academics, they come to be considered academic.
What did "academic art"in the university look like
in the 19th century?
Why was it rejected by artists ?
Young artists spent years in rigorous training.
In France, only students who passed an exam and carried a letter of reference from a noted professor of art were accepted at the academy's school.
Students who were chosen for art school began their training copying prints and creating drawings of plaster casts in the Classical and Renaissance style.
If successful in the eyes of their instructor, they were allowed to continue their study & graduated to drawing live models posed in classical sculptural positions.
When their teacher felt they had developed sufficient technical skills and adequate knowledge of the human form they they were allowed to make actual paintings and works of sculpture.
Students would have been expected to show "classical" influence in their work....which needless to say, caused young artists and sculptors to reject "academic art" institutions.
These artists traveled to Italy and began a pursuit of study all their own.
Consequently, art colonies grew in Rome and Florence which included women!
Isn't this a change???
Two of these women were Harriet Hosmer and Edmonia Lewis.
Harriet Hosmer. Zenobia in Chains. marble
Puck on a toadstool.
"Puck was a mischievous sprite of English folklore."
Edmonia Lewis, an American sculptor who went to live in Italy. She brought a new, naturalistic approach to the neoclassical tradition.
Her works were infused with both personal relevance and timely human rights issues. She was the first Black American sculptor to achieve national recognition.
Hagar in the Wilderness.
This sculpture tells the story of Abraham's Egyptian concubine, Hagar who bore Abraham & Sarah a son. Later, a jealous Sarah, ask Abraham to drive Hagar and their son, Ishmael into the wilderness. When they were dying of thirst, an angel provided water for them. Many say that in this sculpture, Lewis represents the plight and hope of her entire race.
Reactions against the Academy
and the Industrial revolution
In England, the British favored moralizing subject matter over the idealized convention taught at the Academy.
William Hogarth was an English painter and engraver who satirized the follies of his age. The story starts in the mansion of the Earl Squander who is arranging to marry his son to the daughter of a wealthy but mean city merchant. It ends with the murder of the son and the suicide of the daughter. In the first scene the aged Earl (far right) is shown with his family tree and the crutches he needs because of his gout. The new house which he is having built is visible through the window. Two dogs, chained together in the bottom left corner, perhaps symbolize the marriage. Hogarth's details, especially the paintings on the walls, comment on the action. A grand portrait in the French manner on the rear wall confronts a Medusa head, denoting horror, on the side wall.
...and the sweet story of Cornelia and her children by Angelica Kauffman
The setting is the second century BCE, during the Republican era of Rome.
A woman visitor has been showing Cornelia her jewels and then requests to see those of her hostess; Cornelia turns to her sons and says that these are her most precious jewels.
Cornelia exemplifies the “good mother” which was a popular subject.
In the reforming spirit of the Enlightenment – depicted subjects that would teach lessons in virtue.
The value of Cornelia’s maternal dedication is emphasized by the fact that under her loving care the sons grew up to be political reformers.
In design, William Morris reacted against the shoddy industrially produced goods by providing a handcrafted alternative.
William Morris, a proclaimed socialist, founded the decorating firm of Morris & Company. Morris & Company produced a full range of furniture, wallpaper, stained glass, textiles and even bookbinding.
He also founded a philosophy and style of art known as The Arts and Crafts Movement.
" He (Morris) sought to eliminate industrialization not only because he found factory-made products ulgy but also because of mass production's deadening influence on the worker."
Handicraft, he felt would gain the laborer satisfaction from creating and the consumer from using hand made goods.
In America, this movement even took a moral tone: the possession of well made furniture was the hallmark of a virtuous person.
Art Nouveau is french for "The New Art."
An international art movement and style of decoration and architecture characterized particularly by the curvilinear depiction of leaves and flowers, often in the form of vines.
Gustav Klimt (Austrian, 1862-1918), Alphonse Mucha (Czechoslovakian, 1860-1939), Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (French, 1861-1901), Aubrey Beardsley (English, 1872-1898), Antonio Gaudí (Spanish, 1852-1926) were among the most prominent artists associated with this style.
The roots of Art Nouveau go back to Romanticism, Symbolism, the English Arts and Crafts Movement and William Morris (English, 1834-1896).
In America, it inspired, among others, Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933).
Although known as various titles: Jugenstil...Yellow Book Style in England...the term and style
Art Nouveau is internationally recognized.
It reached the peak of its popularity around 1900, only to be gradually overtaken by Art Deco and other modernist styles.
Josef Hoffman. Sidechair
Gustav Klimt. The Kiss
Henri Toulouse Lautrec
Around 1869, Edouard Manet, a Realist painter at the time...trained in the Academy and later would be called the
Father of Impressionism
along with a group of progressive artists and writers met in the cafes in Montmartre, France to discuss the state of the arts in France. Montmartre overlooks Paris and is still today a thriving place for artists.
Some of these artists would become known as the
Among these artists were Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Pierre Renoir.
All but Manet perferred to paint out of doors called
en plein air
(meaning in the open air).
They recorded the fleeting effects of light and atmosphere and painted quickly sometimes with flecks of pure color resulting in the appearance of heavy brushstrokes which gave the canvas texture.
Artist Edouard Manet exhibited
The Luncheon on the Grass
in 1863. This painting earned the impressionists a great deal of media attention. A nude in a classical setting was considered acceptable but a nude in a contemporary setting was not. Luncheon on the Grass caused a public scandal and was rejected by the critics.
When Olympia was presented at the Salon of 1865, out of all the paintings on the walls, and it is believed to have been thousands, it was Olympia that caused such an uproar that authorities were forced to put two armed guards at the painting to protect it.
Impression Sunrise is thought of as one of the most important paintings of the impressionist movement. Art critics did not like this new form of painting and used this painting to deride the exhibition.
Louis Leroy called the group of painters from the 1874 exhibition, where Sunrise was exhibited, the Impressionists. The term stuck and has since become the name of the movement.
The Rehearsal of the Ballet on Stage
Degas is acknowledged as the master of drawing the human figure in motion.
Degas worked in many mediums, preferring pastel to all others. He is perhaps best known for his paintings, drawings, and bronzes of ballerinas and of race horses. The art of Degas reflects a concern for the psychology of movement, expression and the harmony of line and contour.
an American accepted in Paris....
Mary Cassatt was an american painter and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists. She was the daughter of an affluent Pittsburgh businessman, whose French ancestry had endowed him with a passion for the country. Mary studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and then traveled extensively in Europe, finally settling in Paris in 1874. In that year she had a work accepted at the Salon and in 1877 made the acquaintance of Degas, with whom she was to be on close terms throughout his life. His art and ideas had a considerable influence on her own work; he introduced her to the Impressionists and she participated in the exhibitions of 1879, 80, 81 and 86, refusing to participate in 1882 when Degas did not.
Children on the beach
The Boating Party
...and can you guess... after 40+ years...around 1910 a reaction happened against Impressionism...so now we move into Post-impressionism
Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry to describe the development of French art since Manet. Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colors, thick application of paint, distinctive brushstrokes, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary color.
So anything could be any color!
Post impressionism helped pave the way for the abstraction that we see in the early 20th century
Artists such as Paul Cezanne, Georges Seurat, Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh are considered post impressionists
Vincent Van Gogh
Paul Cezanne, a french painter, was one of the greatest of the Post Impressionists whose works and ideas were influential in the aesthetic development of many 20th-century artists and art movements, especially Cubism.
Cézanne's art, misunderstood and discredited by the public during most of his life, grew out of Impressionism and eventually challenged all the conventional values of painting in the 19th century through its insistence on personal expression and on the integrity of the painting itself.
Cezanne has been called the father of modern painting.
Self Portrait with Rose Background
Georges Seurat was a French painter and the ultimate example of the artist as scientist.
He spent his life studying color theories.
His 500 drawings alone established Seurat as a great master, but he will be remembered for his technique
Pointillism, or Divisionism.
Pointillism uses small dots or strokes of contrasting color to create subtle changes in form.
Using this technique, he created huge compositions with tiny, detached strokes of pure color too small to be distinguished when looking at the entire work but making his paintings shimmer with brilliance.
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
Gauguin's development of a
Conceptual Method of Representation
was a decisive step for 20th-century art.
After spending a short period with Vincent van Gogh in Arles (1888), Gauguin increasingly abandoned imitative art for expressiveness through color.
From 1891 he lived and worked in Tahiti and elsewhere in the South Pacific.
Vincent van Gogh, for whom
was the chief symbol of expression, was born in Holland.
The son of a pastor, brought up in a religious and cultured atmosphere, Vincent was highly emotional and lacked self-confidence.
Between 1860 and 1880, when he finally decided to become an artist, van Gogh had two unsuitable and unhappy romances, worked unsuccessfully as a clerk in a bookstore, an art salesman, and a preacher in Belgium where he was dismissed for overzealousness.
He remained in Belgium to study art, determined to give happiness by creating beauty.
Van Gogh's style was very expressive and later influenced many Expressionist artists. Vincent's Life story is just as famous as his art.
Self portrait with bandaged ear
The Night Cafe
The transformation of life in Europe!
Homer believed that unadorned realism was the right style for our democracy.
An illustrator for the once popular Harper's Weekly, Homer was known for his pictorial representations of American life.
Serving as a "war correspondent" at the front during the Civil War...he along with photographer, Matthew Brady captured the essence of life at war.
Homer became a master with watercolors.
His colors were translucent leaving some parts of the white paper unfinished. He captured fleeting impressions of sunlight, water and wind.
Homer's work has had far reaching effects on artist's who followed him. Thomas Eakins, Henry Tanner, Edward Hopper,
Andrew Wyeth and North Carolina artist, Bob Timberlake
The Age of "ism's"
What was the Enlightenment?
When did it take place?
Socialist movements spoke out loudly against the exploitation of laborers by capitalist factory owners
and advocated communal or state ownership of production and distribution.
Consequently, in 1848, Karl Marx published the Communist Manifesto
which predicted the violent overthrow of the property holding middle-class
by the proletariat (working class)
resulting in a creation of a classless society.
Artists attempted to portray the lives, appearances, problems, customs, and mores of the middle and lower classes, of the unexceptional, the ordinary, the humble, and the unadorned.
They (artists) set themselves busily reproducing all the previously ignored aspects of contemporary life and society.
Jean-Francois Millet (1814-1875)
Millet's childhood was spent in a rural farm setting. Although he lived in Paris, a very urban setting, he never considered this his home.
The Second Republic (1848-1851)
Revolution of 1848,
he began to focus on the simple pleasures & difficulties of peasant rural life.
From this, he painted one of his best known works,
Oil on canvas
Musee d' Orsay, Paris
Zenobia is one of the most famous - and controversial - objects produced during the 'golden age' of American classical sculpture. Some critics at the time questioned whether a work of such sublime expression, on such a scale, and requiring such power of hand and arm in the carving, could have been done by a woman.
When Hosmer produced the towering "Zenobia" in 1859
the work was met with disbelief that a woman created it.
John Murdoch, Director of the Huntington Art Collections states:
James Abbott McNeill Whistler saw the Arts and Crafts movement as a way to satisfy a taste for beauty.
Whistler collected Japanese art before it was fashionable.
Japonisme... [japoneism] became a style of French and American art that was highly influenced by Japanese art.
Whistler is best known for his "Arrangment in Grey and Black" a portrait of the painters mother...commonly known as " Whistler's Mother."
Oil on canvas
4'3" x 6' 2 1/4"
Musee d'Orsay, Paris
En Plein Air
The Eiffel Tower by Gustave Eiffel
The Wainwright Building in St. Louis, Missouri
Designed by Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler
The Wainwright Building became a prototype for modern day office buildings.
Location: St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Height: 147 feet
Named after Missouri brewer Ellis Wainwright, the Wainwright Building revolutionized American architecture.
To empathize the height, architect Louis Sullivan used a three-part composition:
The first two stories are unornamented brown sandstone with large, deep windows.
Uninterrupted red brick piers extend through the next seven stories. Between the piers are
horizontal panels decorated with leaf ornaments.
The top story is decorated with round windows and terra cotta leaf scroll ornaments inspired by the Notre-Dame de Reims in France.
Louis Sullivan wrote that the skyscraper "must be tall, every inch of it tall. The force and power of altitude must be in it... the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it. It must be every inch a proud and soaring thing.
In his essay The Tyranny of the Skyscraper, Architect Frank Lloyd Wright called the Wainwright Building "the very first human expression of a tall steel office-building as Architecture."
The Three Shades
Auguste Rodin (1840-1917)
The Burhers of Calais
In 1346, the English king Edward III laid siege to the French port of Calais. Eleven months later, Edward demanded the surrender of six of the town’s leading men, or burghers, in return for sparing its citizens. Rodin’s sculpture commemorates this episode and emphasizes the internal struggle of each man as he walks toward his fate wearing a sackcloth and rope halter. The burghers were later spared thanks to the intervention of the English queen who feared that their deaths would bring bad luck to her unborn child.
Auguste Rodin originally conceived a smaller version of this sculpture to sit atop his monumental bronze portal entitled The Gates of Hell (1880-1917). The figure was intended to represent Italian poet Dante Alighieri pondering The Divine Comedy, his epic story of Paradise and Inferno. However, in 1889 Rodin exhibited the sculpture independently of The Gates, giving it the title The Thinker and in 1902 he embarked on this larger version.
Thanks for Your Attention!