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Middle East Timeline, 600 CE- 1500 CE
Transcript of Middle East Timeline, 600 CE- 1500 CE
to Medina. Muhammad is not alone as he has dubious followers that come with him. The hijra marks the first year in the Islamic calendar. In Medina he was given a hero's welcome (Stearns 143). Wars between the followers of Muhammad and
the Quraysh of Mecca. Muhammad proved to be an able leader and courageous fighter in these clashes between the Umayyad nobilitty and the faithfuls to Muhammad's cause (Stearns 144). 628 CE Muhammad enters Mecca in triumph with a great amount of newly converted Bedouin allies, and more than 10,000 other converts accompaned him as well. After proving the power of Allah and smashing the idols of the shrine during this triumphant return, Muhammad gradually won over the Umayyads as well (Stearns 144). 630 CE Muhammad falls ill and dies in this year after returing to Medina from the Farewell Pilgrimage (Stearns 144). 632 CE Abu Bakr succedes Muhammad and becomes the first caliph of Islamic community after his death. Abu Bakr was a gentle, wise, and courageous man who was well versed in the genealogical histories of the bedouin tribes, which meant he knew how to make ties between clans of bedouin tribes (Stearns 146). 632-634 CE Ridda Wars in Arabia following Muhammad's death. These wars resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and some larger clans. After these wars, the Islamic umma was restored and succession was not as big of an issue (stearns 146). 633-634 CE Early Muslim conquests in the Byzantine Empire (Stearns 138). Muslim conquests were driven not by a desire for mass conversions but a lust for rich farmland and booty (Stearns 146). 634-643 CE Arab invasion and destruction of Sasanian Empire. The Islamic empire was able to do this because of a weak emperor who was manipulated by a landed, aristocratic class and Zoroastrianism was fading as a sufficient unifying religion (Stearns 147). 637 CE Rule of Caliph Uthman. Uthman was the third caliph and membr of the Umayyad clan, however he was mudered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt. His death set off a civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan (Stearns 149). 644-656 CE Rule of Caliph Ali; first civil war. His assassination and his sons death gave rise to the faction of Shi'a Islam (Stearms 149). 656-661 CE Mu'awiya comes into power. Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad claiph following civil war with
Ali (Stearns 149). 661-680 CE Islam splits into rival Sunni and Shiite factions
after the assassination of Caliph Ali; the Umayyad dynasty comes to power and makes Damascus capital of the Islamic world (Stearns 149). 661-750 CE 680 CE Death of Ali's son Husayn at Karbala. From
this point on, the Shi'a mounted sustained
resistance to the Umayyad calpihate (Stearns 149). 680-692 CE Second civil war fueld by split between
Sunnis and Shiites (Stearns 138). 744-750 CE Third civil war commences. Abbasid
revolt begins. 750 CE Abbasid caliphate begins. Umayyad declines due to an ever-increasing size of the royal harem which drains the empires monetary funds. The Abbasid party came from the frontiers of the Merv border and commenced in the Battle of the River Zab which resulted in conquest of Syria and the capture of the Umayyad capital (Stearns 152). 597-626 CE Wars etween the Byzantine and Sasanian empires
occur during this time period. The conflict involved several small campaigns and various peace treaties were instigated in this brief stint. The Byzantine and Sasanian empires struggled to assert control over the vast majority of the bedouin tribes in the Arabian peninusla (Stearns 142). 711-714 CE Muslim forces overrun and conquer Spain, which they name Al-Andalus. The great city of Cordoba is set up and the majority is Muslim, however numerous other religions are allowed to practice freely (What 2). 909 CE Beginning of the Fatimid caliphate in North Africa (What 3) 969 CE The Fatimid dynasty conquers Egypt and transfers its seat to the new city of Cairo in 973 (What 3). 1096 CE The First Crusade is launched to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims (What 3). 1218 CE Beginning of the Mongol conquests (What 4). The Seljuk Turking kindom of Rum collapses in eastern Anatolia in Asian Minor (Stearns 469). 1236 CE Spanish Christians conquer Cordoba (What 4) Muhammad receives his first revelations from the Angel Gabriel. Allah's teachings conveyed through Gabriel form the basis of the holy teachings of the Quran (Stearns 138). 1281 CE Founding of Ottoman dynasty. They were unified under Mehmed I and gained numerous amounts of land from the Balkans (Stearns 469). 1450 CE Large-scake recruitment of Janissary troops begins. Janissaries were Ottoman infantry divisions that were forciply conscripted as boys in conquered areas of the Balkans (Stearns 472). 1453 CE Ottomans capture Constantinople. Useful weaponry such as the siege cannon and various military guns as well as a surplus of 100,000 soldiers resulted in this victory over the Byzantines (Stearns 469). 1517 CE Ottoman capture of Syria and Egypt. After their conquering of Byzantine Constantinople, the Ottomans were able to bring much of the Arab world back under their rule (Stearns 470). 1520-1566 CE Rule of Suleymanthe Magnificent; construction of Suleymaniye mosque in Constantinople (Stearns 470). 1529 CE First Ottoman siege of Vienna. The Ottoman naval power is starting to gain ground on other Western Maritime powers (Stearns 470). 1571 CE The Battle of Lepanto bewteen the combined Spanish and Venetian fleet and the Ottoman naval fleet. The spain and Venetian fleet defeated the Ottomans even though they had less ships and less troops, although they did have numerous more guns and siege artillery weapons (Stearns 476). 1683 CE Last Ottoman siege of Vienna (Stearns 471). 1699 CE Treaty of Carlowitz; Ottomans cede territories in Europe (Stearns 471). Middle East Timeline
600 - 1750 CE 1722 CE First Turkish-language printing press (Stearns 471). 1730 CE Ottoman armies are defeated by Persian forceds under Nadir Khan 1735 CE First Western-modeled military schools established in Constantinople