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Holodomor - The Ukrainian Genocide
Transcript of Holodomor - The Ukrainian Genocide
•Soviets denied the existence of the famine during 1932-1933
Citizens who hid food in their homes were arrested and taken to labour camps
Holodomor was described to be a crime and tragedy
It was Considered genocide by 13 modern states Criminal Charges •According to scholars, more than 25 million soviet citizens were forced through labor camps from 1929 to 1953
•Communist Party head Petro Symoneko stated he did not believe the famine was a deliberate starvation at all
•There still are debates today on whether Holodomor classified as an act of genocide •On November 10 2003 the UN and 25 countries had signed a joint statement on the 17 anniversary of Holodomor of the following preamble
"In the former Soviet Union millions of men, women and children fell victims to the cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime. The Great Famine of 1932–1933 in Ukraine (Holodomor), which took from 7 million to 10 million innocent lives and became a national tragedy for the Ukrainian people. In this regard we note activities in observance of the seventieth anniversary of this Famine, in particular organized by the Government of Ukraine.""
The UN established 'The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide' in 1948 from influences of Holodomor and the recent Holocaust
The UN settlements main purpose was to prevent, criminalize, and punish acts of genocide non-UN Settlements •Genocide was applied to Ukraine’s criminal code in the 1990’s
•On April 26, 2010 President Viktor stated Holodomor affected Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan and was a result of Stalin’s regime, he announced this in front of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
• In 2007 President Viktor wanted a law which criminalized Holodomor denial Criminal Charges
•Stalin’s death in 1953 brought fourth thousands of citizen into the street to view his body, many were killed for ensuing panic
•A Ukrainian court stated in 2010 it had dropped criminal proceedings on the charges of Holodomor, because the suspects had died
•However a court in Kiev in 2010 found Stalin guilty of the ac of genocide on Holodomor of 1932-1933
•Later Yevgeny Dzhugashvili, known for a series of court battles in Russia to protect his honor over accusations against his grandfather had argued by sending a letter to Ukraine's prosecutor general stating they were false charges and could only have come from Stalin's enemy, Hitler, rather than a democratic state No exact number of fatalities but estimated of 4-10 million deaths during famine
Communist authorities attempted to distort all the numbers
1930 the USSR exported 58 million tons of grain and in 1931, 4.8 million tons and in 1932, 1.6 million tons and in 1933 2.1 million tons
Population Census Population of Ukraine decreased an approximate 10% from 1932-1933 31,195,000 million in 1926 to 28,111,000 million in 1939
Population of Russia went up from 77,791,000 million to 99,591,000 million Demographic losses due to famine were 10 million, 3.9 million famine deaths and 6.1
million birth deficit
Evidence of cannibalism was documented
More than 2500 were convicted of cannibalism during Holodomor Reasons for the Genocide Reasons Continued The Soviets then thought up of a strategy to take control of the Ukraine’s rich farming scene.
Called the Five Year Plan (1928-1933), independent farmers were forced to give up to the state without compensation their private land, livestock, and equipment.
The more well-to-do farmers, labeled as kurkuls (kulaks) and leaders in the villages were targeted by the Soviet government as "anti-Soviet, unwanted elements".
They were systematically destroyed by deportations to Siberia, concentration camps, and or suffered firing squads.
To make sure this wrongdoing was kept secret, the Soviets made it so that no one could contact the outside world.
They killed those who opposed this and took the food they gathered from the Ukrainians and sent it away to either be sold or used in the borders of the USSR. UN Settlements Statistics Continue At peak of the genocide, there was an estimated 25,000 deaths each day
Nearly 1 in 4 rural Ukrainians perished as a direct result of the famine
3 million children born from 1932-1933 died from starvation
Over 11 million were victims of the genocide Genocide: The deliberate killing of a large group of people The main reason for the Ukrainian Genocide was that once the USSR had re taken Ukraine in the 1920’s, the people of Ukraine were not willing to give up their nationalism for Ukraine.
As well, the Soviet Union wanted to turn Ukraine’s farming system of independent farming into a more communistic practice of collective farming.
Because the Ukrainians did not easily accept this practice Stalin ordered a war on a class of prosperous peasants who resisted his plan for collectivization of agriculture in the Soviet Union (state control over agricultural production and distribution).
The state used propaganda extensively to gain support for the program. 1918-1920 1918-1921 1920 1921 – 1922 1921 1922 1924 1925 1928 1929 1930 1930 1932 1933 1918 Jan. 22 TIMELINE Ukraine declares Independence. Ukraine attempts to establish an independent state (The Hetmanate and the Ukrainian National Republic. while fighting the Red Army Bolsheviks/Communists), the White Army (Russian Monarchists) the Poles. The Bolsheviks gain control of Ukraine with the aid of the Red Army. Civil War rages throughout the former Russian Empire, including Ukraine. Famine rages in Ukraine as 1,500,000 Ukrainians starve to death, while food is taken out of Ukraine to feed Russian cities. The New Economic Policy (NEP) is brought in to rebuild the economy. It allowed for small farm holdings, permitting Ukrainian farmers to continue farming their private land plots and running small businesses. Ukraine is formally incorporated into the Soviet Union as a republic with Kharkiv, in Eastern Ukraine, as the new capital. Vladimir Lenin dies and a power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin continues. Ukrainization Policy is brought in to appease the nationalistic Ukrainian population. As a result, some Ukrainian intellectuals join the Communist Party of Ukraine. Stalin takes complete control of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party, introduces the First Five Year Plan (1928-1933) with Collectivisation and Industrialization as the goals. Attack on Ukrainian national elites – potential leaders of resistance: Arrest of 700 members and show trial of a fictitious SVU (Union for the Liberation of Ukraine) accused of wanting an independent Ukraine with links to the farmers and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Ukrainian Orthodox Church is liquidated and leaders are imprisoned or executed. De-kulakization: 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 farmers are sent to Siberia, are executed, or sent to concentration camps with their families. Property of “rich farmers” is confiscated and transferred to collective farms. Uprisings against the government . One third of them in Ukraine. Stalin prepares for the Famine-Genocide setting unrealistic grain procurements for Ukraine. Famine in Ukraine. 40% of harvest in Ukraine to be handed over to the government. Little is left for the farmers. Farmers live off their depleted reserves and small plots and farm animals. Ukrainian farmers flee to cities, to Russia and Belarus in search of food. August 7, 1932 “kolhosp property decree”: death penalty for stealing grain in the field. Unproductive villages in Ukraine (1/3) and the Kuban are deprived of manufactured goods and food stuffs - blacklisted. Villages are cordoned off and left to starve. Widespread starvation in Ukraine, the Kuban and the Caucasus. Dec. 14, 1932 Secret decree blames Ukrainization, national tendencies, for grain problems. The Ukrainian language is forbidden in the Russian republic. In Ukraine, the Ukrainian leadership is purged, gradually replaced by non-Ukrainians and Russification is brought in. January 22, 1933, Secret directive sent to Kharkiv to close the borders of Ukraine and Kuban from the rest of the USSR, to prevent starving farmers from searching for food. In 6 weeks, 220,000 arrested, many shot, sent to the gulag, 85% were sent home to starve. Red Cross, Cardinal Innitzer demand permission to send famine relief; Moscow denies famine and rejects relief. Bibliography "Timelines of the Famine/Genocide in Ukraine 1932-1933 ." faminegenocide.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar 2013. <http://www.faminegenocide.com/kuryliw/timeline.htm>. Kuryliw , Valentina. " THE FAMINE/GENOCIDE IN UKRAINE “THE HOLODOMOR, 1932-1933"." faminegenocide.com. N.p.. Web. 3 Mar 2013. <http://www.faminegenocide.com/kuryliw/the_ukrainian_genocide.htm>. Serbyn, Roman. "The Cause and the Consequences of Famines in Soviet Ukraine ." faminegenocide.com. N.p.. Web. 3 Mar 2013. <http://faminegenocide.com/resources/causes.html>. This site is a reliable source as it was created in commemoration of the 65th anniversary of this event and each article in the website was taken from a renowned researcher on the event from Ontario Statistics Continue Ukraine Today (Health) Population: 44,854,065
Male: 63.07 years (Compared to 77.22 Years in Canada and 65.71 in the world)
Female: 74.77 years (Compared to 83.75 Years in Canada and 70.14 in the world)
total population: 68.74 years (Compared to 80.48 Years in Canada and 67.88 in the world.)
Population Growth: -0.625%/Year
350,000 people living with aids (2009 est.)
Birth Rate: 9.59 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 15.76 deaths/1,000 population
Overall Infant Mortality Rate: 8.38 deaths/1,000 live births Ukraine Today (Politics) GDP: 183.23 billion (52nd in the world)
Unitary semi-presidential republic
(President & Prime Minister)
8.5% of people are unemployed
35% of the population is below the poverty line.
Military conscription service obligations:
12 months for Army and Air Force, 18 months for Navy The Five Year Plan -The Five Year Plan was a list of economic goals that the Soviet Union was to achieve in 5 years time.
-It was presented in 1928 and lasted until 1933
-It was used by Stalin to quickly industrialize the nation in a short amount of time.
-This quick industrialization was achieved because of strict quotas put into every industry, region and worker.
-Workers were bombarded with heavy propaganda, which included posters, slogans and radio broadcasts.
- Workers were fined if they did not meet their targets. Propaganda A Propaganda Poster circa 1933-1934 Ukraine Pros of the Five Year Plan The Five year plan resulted in huge strides in the Soviet Unions Industry. This included: Rianovosti."Stalin Gradson edemands probe into Ukraine famine charges".Rian.ru. Feburary 24 2013. <http://en.rian.ru/exsoviet/20100118/157593603.html>
This site give information on the non un settlements & criminal charges of Holodomor -Hydroelectric power
-Transportation & Communication
-The Moscow Metro
-Plastics The Ukrainian Famine."The Ukrainian Famine".danskukrainsk.dk.Feburary 24 2013
This site gives much information societal and political views of Holodomor Huge improvements in production of goods also happened, as seen in the following:
64 Million Tons of Coal in 1933 (Compared to 35 Million in 1927)
21 Million Tons of Oil in 1933 (Compared to 12 Million in 1927)
6 Million Tons of Steel in 1933 (Compared to 4 Million in 1927)
13.4 billion kWh of Electricity (Compared to 5.0 billion kWh in 1927) Ukrainina Genocide Famine Foundation-USA-Inc..Ukrainian Genocide of 1932-1933.UkrainianGenocide.org.Feburary 26 2013<http://www.ukrainiangenocide.com>
This site give information of the peoples perspective and societal life through Holodomor Wikiedia.Holodomor.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holodomor.Feburary 24 2013.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holodomor>
This site gives information from many topics le Criminal charges and Statistics Cons of the Five Year Plan -Although the Soviet Union was becoming more industrialized. The plan neglected agriculture in the nation which started the beginning of the famine.
- Due to the heavy quotas, many workers were worked to death trying to meet them. Those that didn`t were sent to labor camps, beaten or fined.
-Some work was very dangerous, and many workers died from work related accidents.
-Human rights were constantly being violated by the secret police to keep workers in line. Infofukes.Black Famine in Ukraine 1932-1933.infofukes.com.Feburary 27 2013<http://www.infoukes.com/history/famine/gregorovich/>
This site give information on livestock and society numbers through the genocide The Soviet Union Affected Areas of the Ukraine Bibliography Continue http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/about/press/asas-02388-010.jpg
"Industry and the 5-Year Plans ." johndclare.net. N.p.. Web. 3 Mar 2013. <http://www.johndclare.net/Russ11.htm>.
This Website is reliable, because the information on the page was cross checked with 3 other websites to ensure it`s validity.
"The World Fact Book." cia.gov. N.p.. Web. 3 Mar 2013. <"Industry and the 5-Year Plans ." johndclare.net. N.p.. Web. 3 Mar 2013. . >.
This Website is reliable because it is on an american government agencies website, and it is known throughout the world. Joseph Stalin
8 December 1878- March 1953) Leader of the Soviet Union and it`s communist party, Stalin was the man that created the 5 year plan that resulted in holodomor. His economic policies started an era of industrialization in the Soviet Union. Under Stalin's rule, the concept of "socialism in one country" became a central tenet of Soviet society.