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Transcript of Cambodia Timeline
While the crisis seriously affected much of Southeast Asia, Cambodia was relatively unaffected. Cambodia at the time was one of the poorest Southeast Asian countries ($280 GNP per capita) but was growing and had benefitted from the burgeoning economy of Southeast Asia as a whole.
By: Nicole Dashiell, Jess Bowcock, Abigail Kaunda, Maitha Qambar, David Lord, Quincey Szymeczek
Norodom Sinhanouk abdicates
Norodom Sihamoni (his son, but not the former Prime Minister) becomes king.
* The government established a National Task Force, comprising 11 government ministries, three government agencies and more than 200 international and local NGO’s.
* Daughters of Cambodia and Son’s of Cambodia NGO was established.
• Cambodia joined Blue Heart against human trafficking Campaign.
• In December 2011, the former head of the Police’s Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Protection Department was sentenced to seven years’ imprisonment on complicity charges, including accepting payments from brothels in exchange for protection and information on future raids.
• The National Plan of Action (2011-2013), which is the government’s policy framework for combating trafficking, was approved by the National Committee in December.
• According to Tiger Watch 2013:
- The Cambodian government policies lacked clear description of responsibilities of recruitment agencies and government authorities.
- Many of the law were not effective.
- No evidence of advanced effort on fighting human trafficking.
January 7, 1979
Vietnamese army overthrows Khmer Rouge regime in Phnom Penh
Paris Peace Accords
These accords were mainly designed to put an end to the civil war. It also sought to expel Vietnamese troops that had been present since 1978. And lastly, it sought to establish democracy. Prince Norodom Sihanouk becomes head of state, with elections to take place in the future.
Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge regime flee to Thailand border region
People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) is established as pro-Soviet state
Vietnamese military presence remained, and PRK was not recognized by the UN
While most ethnic tensions were eased in the absence of the Khmer Rouge regime, ethnic Chinese in Cambodia were still treated badly
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Prince Sihanouk forms tentative alliance with Khmer Rouge regime to establish the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK)
Prince had been imprisoned in his palace under Khmer Rouge rule
A response to growing concern over Vietnamese occupation
Drew suspicion from US as being a Vietnamese puppet government
Sihanouk broke off the U.S. military aid program in an effort to separate himself from the Vietnam War.
Why It's Important
Made the military a less effective combat force
Sihanouk nationalized the import-export sector of the economy and closed the privately owned banks
This move made him vulnerable to pressures from the left (communists) and lowered military morale.
Foreign trade suffered and clandestine trade with the Communist insurgents in Vietnam was common
Saloth Sar founds the communist organization that would later become the Khmer Rouge
Hun Sen becomes Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of PRK
One of the leaders of the rebel army that fought the Khmer Rouge regime
Succeeded Chan Sy who died in office
Was appointed by Vietnamese government
Goes on to be Southeast Asia's longest serving ruler
Prince Norodom Sihanouk becomes king. His past title of Prince (although he was head of state) finally becomes king. Prince Norodom Ranariddh (the son of Norodom Sihanouk) becomes first democratically elected Prime Minister, along with Hun Sen who remains co-Prime Minister.
March 18, 1969
U.S. began secret B-52 bombing campaign of Vietnamese sanctuaries in rural Cambodia
Why It's Important
Nixon’s administration decided that the Vietnamese and Cambodians were working together to be Communist states
After ‘Operation Breakfast’ failed to find any compounds in Cambodia, he mission was expanded to include Operations Lunch, Snack, Dinner, Dessert, and Supper
Cambodian Constituent Assembly creates new constitution
Article 46(1), the “commerce of human beings, exploitation by prostitution and obscenity which affect the reputation of women shall be prohibited.” Article 31(1) incorporates all international human rights law as part of Cambodian law. Article 47(1) requires parents to take care of their children (and not traffic them). Article 48 guarantees protection of children’s rights according to international conventions, despite the attitude in Cambodia that a child is his parents’ property.
Law on the Suppression of Kidnapping, Trafficking and Exploitation of Humans
Levied fines against traffickers. Traffickers were defined as people who lure victims, sell them receive or buy them, facilitate any of the previously stated actions, people who pimp out victims, owners of brothels, and johns who pay for sex with minors. The punishments are even more severe for those caught paying for sex with children under 15 years old. Prostitution was already illegal, so punishments for prostitutes were not addressed. Articles 1 and 2 prohibit trafficking in general. Article 3 prohibits kidnapping for the sake of trafficking. Articles 4 and 5 prohibit pimping. Article 6 prohibits assisting pimps in pimping. Article 7 prohibits “houses of debauchery.” Article 8 prohibits pedophilia.
March 17, 1970
Prime Minister Lon Nol staged a coup d''état against Prince Norodom Sihanouk. National Assembly voted in favor of the coup.
Why It's Important
Started a civil war between Prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Lon Nol’s forces forces
Prime Minister Lon Nol was U.S. backed because he was anti-Communist
Hun Sen is a former Khmer Rouge party member and current member of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP). He mounted a coup against the Prime Minister, Prince Ranariddh, and replaces him with Ung Huot of the Funcinpec Party, but actually becomes the de-facto leader of Cambodia via the post of Second Prime Minister. The coup attracts international condemnation and is called "an illegal and ridiculous move" by opposition leaders.
• Cambodia’s issued Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
• A case was dismiss of the former President of Cambodian who was removed from her position in 2007 for reportedly accepting 30,000 dollar for the release of two criminals that were convicted with human trafficking offenses.
• The government banned all marriages of Cambodians to foreigners out of concern that some Cambodian women were vulnerable to trafficking.
February 28, 1992
United Nations Security Council resolution 745 adopted unanimously
Authorized the establishment of
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
Limited to 18-month lifespan
Purpose was to facilitate democratic election in Cambodia
• The Ministry of Social Affairs issued a new policy and National Minimum Standards for the Protection of the Rights of Victims of Human Trafficking, which includes guidelines to improve the victim's medical treatment and protection. The law focused on traning officails to identify and provide supprot to the victims of human trafficking.
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) established
First occasion in which the UN had taken over the administration of an independent state, and organized and run an election (as opposed to monitoring or supervising)
Had its own jail
Infusion of foreigners and foreign money led to a booming sex industry
Declared himself president, prime minister, defense minister, and marshal of the armed forced in 1972
Corrupt, Repressive, & Incompetent
UNTAC is disestablished after Prince Ranariddh wins democratic election
Although UNTAC leaves, the foreign tourism industry has already been created
Sex tourism boomed alongside foreign tourism during UNTAC stay
U.S. troops withdrew from Vietnam. However, the U.S. was still bombing Cambodia until August 1973 when Congress banned it.
Why It's Important
Between March 1969 and August 1973 540,000 tons of bombs had been dropped into the Cambodian countryside.
Tens of thousands of civilians were killed. Support for the Cambodian Communists grew because of the bombing of Cambodia by the U.S. and further U.S. intervention.
Nixon blamed Congress for weakening regional security and 'raising doubts in the mind of both friends and adversaries about U.S. 'resolve''
April 17, 1975
Khmer Rouge entered Phnom Penh as conquerors. They ordered the citizens to leave the capital saying that the American B-52s were about to bomb the city.
Reasons for the evacuation:
The Capital was genuinely short on food
It would be difficult to administer several million people who had opposed the revolution
CPK’s leaders were fearful for their own security
Desire to assert the victory of the CPK, the dominance of the countryside over the cities, and privileged positions over the poor
* Since 1996, a non-governmental organization known as AFESIP has been working to rescue and aid young female victims of human trafficking. Operating three centers in Cambodia where the young women are housed and educated.
* The Co-founder Somaly Mam, a Cambodian-born woman who claims to have been a child prostitute in the ’80s.
* In May 2014 Mam stepped down as the head of her own foundation, amid allegations that she fabricated not only the stories of two of her spokespeople, but also her own life story.
Pol Pot/Saloth Sar
Pol Pot was the leader of the Khmer Rouge
The Khmer Rouge put Pol Pot on trial and sentence him to life imprisonment in 1997
He dies in 1998 in his jungle hideout
April 20-21, 1975
Foreign presence in Cambodia was ordered to leave. The French embassy had tried to harbor people, but the Khmer Rouge told the French that the 1300 people in the compound would be deprived of food and water if the Cambodians did not leave
Why It's Important
The Khmer Rouge created an isolated area around Phonm Penh in an effort to get rid of educated or urban people
People were evacuated into the countryside where they were forced to farm rice as part of an ideal agrarian society where people then died or were killed in the Killing Fields
1-3 million people were killed during the 3 year genocide
April 29-30, 1989
Transition to the State of Cambodia officially begins
Vietnam pulls out its troops
People's Republic of Kampuchea is renamed State of Cambodia
Buddhism is reinstated as official religion
While he had already been Prime Minister effectively behind the scenes, Hun Sen officially becomes the sole Prime Minister in an election in 1998. He remains the Prime Minister today. His government had been accused of torture and corruption in the 1980s. His goverment continues to exert media control and crack down on protestors.
Hun Sen becomes Prime Minister
2000 Palermo Protocol
Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
2008 UN Document
UN Cambodian Gender Assessment
tracked gender equality and women’s rights issues over time and noted the trends and changes in attitudes and practices, and identified where efforts needed further strengthening
2010 UN Documents
UN Cambodia Millennium Development Goals Report (2010) - The Royal Government of Cambodia launched this report on 28 March 2011 in Siem Reap; he report looks at progress made toward achieving the CMDGs by 2015
2011 UN Documents
• UNICEF Publication: Residential Care in Cambodia (2011) – factsheet defines residential care, tracks trends and explains why residential care is problematic in Cambodia; highlights a vulnerable area for child trafficking
• UNAIDS Publication: Gender and Gender Based Violence in Cambodia (2011) - data snapshot of gender issues in Cambodia, including prevalence of and police attitudes towards domestic violence, gender-based violence against sex and entertainment workers, most-at-risk young people, women living with HIV, and sexual and reproductive health
• UNODC's Thematic Programme Against Transnational Organized Crime And Illicit Trafficking (2011-2013) – a comprehensive strategy setting out the complementary nature of UNODC's work in preventing and combating both human trafficking and migrant smuggling, and defining the immediate priorities for UNODC's future action and engagement on these crimes
Japanese Troops enter Cambodia but allow the Vichy French to remain in control
Thailand invades and Seizes land
Unlike other places in Asia, the Japanese occupiers do not cause much harm
Nationalistic movements are ecouraged, soon leftist movements take root
Cambodia becomes a French Protectorate and the greater Indochina Colony
Cambodia declares independence
Japanese Military forces overthrow colonial government
Remaining French officials and military units are detained and disarmed.
France reestablishes control over the country but with significant autonomy
Beginnings of guerrilla forces, such as Khmer Issarak
Viet Min begins war against French Forces
Full independence from France
non-communist government under Sihanouk
Viet Minh operating throughout the country
beginnings of a the neutral policy
-GNI per capita/year: US$540
-Over half the population is under the age of 20