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Transcript of PAST MODALS
ALMOST CERTAIN - HAVE CLUES
MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
It is a possibility
These are used to talk about a possibility in the past.
It was possible but didn't happen
" shows something you could have done but you did NOT do
Must have is used to talk about something that happened in the past and it is more certain than
Kirsty is a very good student.
She generally attends the classes.
But on Wednesday she looked pale.
Now, she is not in class.
"Kirsty must have been ill; otherwise she would be in class."
I know that Robert doesn't have a car.
But I saw him in a car this morning.
"That's not Robert's car. He
must have borrowed it from his parents."
MAY HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
Kyle is a student but I barely know him.
Today he is not in the class. So I say:
"Kyle might have gotten ill and he may have stayed at home."
"Kyle may have stayed at a friend's house
after the night at the disco."
It is used for events which were possible in the past, but did not happen
I could have gone to the cinema
(but I went to the beach instead)."
COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
seen the stars, but it was cloudy."
can also represent
Jane is in a terrible mood today.
could have had
a fight with
couldn't have heard
Don't forget we can use
may/might have + past participle
to make these sentences, as well.
can also be used for suggesting alternative "
I invited my boyfriend over to meet my parents,
but he arrived wearing torn jeans.
He looked so messy!
could have dressed
Imaginary situation in the past (unreal)
WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
Criticism & Judgment
SHOULD / SHOULD NOT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
This means it was a good idea to do
something in the past, but you
We often use this
or to talk about
"You shouldn't have been so rude!"
You were rude
and it was a bad idea.
Andrew did not attend the classes in the previous term. Later, he failed the tests and he repeated the term.
should have attended
something in the past that didn't happen. You can also use it as of
"if I were you."
My friend Sally gave her class notes to Eric. I know Eric; he never returns things. So I tell Sally:
should not have given
the notes to Eric. I
would not have given
them to him. I know he never returns things."
Tom invited me out for dinner at a fancy restaurant.I ended up paying for us both!
wouldn't have paid
for him. I think what he did is very rude. He
shouldn't have invited
you if he didn't have enough money."
I wasn't in his position. I am imagining the situation.