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WOMEN COMPOSER IN CLASSICAL AND ROMANTIC PERIOD
Transcript of WOMEN COMPOSER IN CLASSICAL AND ROMANTIC PERIOD
Many reasons mitigating against women becoming composers
Love and determination to pursue interest for music. Lack of a proper musical education
Social attitude: not acceptable for a woman to compose
Women's abilities not acknowledged
Big musical competitions were usually won by men
ROMANTIC PERIOD Romantic Period:
Women made great strides in establishing careers as professional musicians
Broadening of education opportunities.
Receive training as singers, instrumentalists, and composers
Piano provided women of the middle and upper classes with a performance outlet that was socially acceptable.
Some women broke away from the tradition and overcame societal stereotypes
Many people still hold the view that women lacked creativity in the arts
Some women pursued literary careers under a male pen name.
- women named themselves after men to disguise themselves.
odds was against women
laid the foundation for their even greater achievements in the twentieth century. CASE STUDIES CASE STUDY (I): MARIA ANNA MOZART CASE STUDY (II): CLARA SCHUMANN
CASE STUDY (III): FANNY MENDELSSOHN
Fanny Cacilie Mendelssohn
Born: 14th November 1805(Hamburg)
Died: 14th May 1847(Berlin).
German pianist and composer,
Elder sister of Felix Mendelssohn. Same musical education and upbringing as Felix.
Showed prodigious musical ability as a child and began to write music.
Her mother remarked that her fingers were suitable for playing Bach’s fugues.
At the age of 13: Payed from memory all 24 of the first book of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier.
She and Felix was that centre of attention in all musical gatherings
Influence: Mother Restrictive social attitudes deprived her the opportunity to develop as a major talent
Felix helped her to publish a number of her songs under his name
Fanny gave him constructive criticisms of his compositions
Publicly debuted in 1838 with Felix’s Piano Concerto No. 1
Published a collection of her songs in 1846.
Died while rehearsing one of Felix’s oratorios.
Composed 466 pieces of music (Lieder music for piano, choral, instrumental ensemble and chamber music)
In the style of songs
Over 200 lieder including her famous “Swan Song”
Over 100 piano music including bagatelles, fugues, preludes and sonatas.
Born: 13th September 1819 (Leipzig)
Died: 20th May 1896 (Frankfurt)
Virtuoso pianist, composer, and leading interpreter of the music of Chopin, Brahms and Robert Schumann
Works are technically difficult and also deeply introspective.
Studied piano from the age of 5,
Made first public appearance as a concert artist in Leipzig at 9 Defied her father and married Robert Schuman
Regularly sacrificing the interests of her own career to focus on her seven children
Dedicated her talents to advancing Robert’s music.
Gave first performance of all his important works
After Robert's death, Clara resumed her performing career, tirelessly undertaking long international tours.
Gave her last concert at the age of 72 and succumbed to stroke 5 years later. Praised by other composers for her music.
- Small intimate works
- 2 large-scale works: a piano concerto and a trio for piano and strings
- A number of virtuoso pieces
- A set of Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann
Earlier works: technical display which showed off her phenomenal talent. Later works: more serious and introspective pieces One of the most distinguished musicians of the 19th century.
Admired throughout Europe as a leading pianist of the era,
The world in which she lived was not prepared to acknowledge that a woman could be an outstanding composer.
Her considerable gifts were not recognized or encouraged during her lifetime. Classical period:
Women were excluded from the musical life in churches and musical education that churches provided
Most professional female musicians learnt music as the family trade.
Deemed proper that noble and upper-middle-class women could study music.
Many became highly skilled amateurs
Made a living as piano teachers and some as professional performers. Women were expected to write music connected to those instruments and genre
Compositions should also reflect the stereotypical characters of females
Gentle, undemanding and simple, directly emotional rather than complex and intellectual.
Inhibits the development of the female composers’ creativity
Were not able to write music in the best of their abilities.
Maria Anna Mozart,
Born: 30th July 1751 (Salzburg)
Died: 29th October 1829
Older sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Pianist and a composer
Music equivalent of Mozart.
Studied with their father, Leopold Mozart
Displayed extraordinary talent at the keyboard Performed concertos and 4-hand piano works
Toured around to showcase their talents
Capable composer but her gifts remained underdeveloped.
Nannerl was seen too old to be exhibited as a child prodigy
Was outshone by Mozart in terms of composition and improvisation.
Mozart --- star player
Nannerl --- supporting player.
None of her compositions are known to have survived.